Herb Garden Guide

Welcome to the Modern Botanical Garden’s

HERB GARDEN

Herbs have been used for generations for many purposes from medicinal remedies to perfumes and culinary uses. Herbs also provide beauty and variety to our desert landscapes. We invite you to use this guide to learn about the variety of herbs that grow well in our Mojave Desert and how you can create your own herb garden at home.

OVERVIEW
The Herb Garden is designed with seven themed gardens. This guide has information about each area with plant recommendations and growing tips about herbs you can grow in your low desert garden.

THEMES
Sensory Garden Wildlife Garden Tea Garden Mediterranean Garden Picante Garden Culinary Garden Medicinal Garden

FEATURES
A Walk Through Thyme, Carol Bulla Sundial Memorial St. Earth Walking, Sculpture by Robert Wick The Barbara B. Weisz Family Plaza

DEFINITION: herb: a plant that is useful in some way

MEDITERRANEAN GARDEN

Many herbs that thrive in our harsh desert environment are of Mediterranean origin. Soil types, low rainfall and over 300 sunny days a year allow these familiar herbs to grow easily in our low desert gardens. Many of these plants are favorites for cooking, but some have other uses that you may not know about:

Oregano: Oils from crushed leaves are used to polish furniture and leaves hung in closets scent linens and clothes. Oregano is believed to bring good health, longevity, and joy.

Sweet Marjoram: Cultivated in ancient Egypt as a symbol of honor and joy, sweet marjoram is in the same genus as oregano with leaves that have a very spicy aroma.

Sage: Ancient Chinese used sage in spiritual and healing ceremonies. Ancient Greeks used it as a mental stimulant. Sage is in the genus of Salvia and is associated with salvation and good health.

Thyme: There are over 400 varieties of thyme in Asia and Europe. In ancient Rome, thyme was used with garlic for energy. Rosemary: This Mediterranean native has been used for centuries for scenting and medicinal purposes. It is associated with remembrance and fidelity because of its long-lasting piney aroma. Rosemary is the symbol of friendship and loyalty.

PLANTS

Origanum majorana – Sweet Marjoram

Origanum vulgare – Italian (Greek) Oregano

Rosmarinus officinalis – Rosemary

Salvia officinalis – Culinary Sage

Thymus herba-barona – Caraway-thyme

Thymus vulgaris – English Thyme

Thymbra capitata – Conehead-thyme

GROWING TIPS: Most Mediterranean herbs need well-drained soil and a lot of sun. Many of them are quite drought tolerant. These low-maintenance plants allow more time for enjoying your garden and are a nice addition to desert landscapes.

PICANTE GARDEN

A cornucopia of chile pepper varieties is displayed in this hot spot. Not only do chile fruits vary in size and shape, they also have a broad range of “hotness.” How hot is hot? The Scoville scale measures capsaicin levels (heat/spiciness) in chile peppers. The ‘Habañero’ is very hot while the ‘Jalapeño’ can be termed a mildly hot pepper. The spicy ‘Chiltepin’ is native to southern Arizona in a limited habitat. Chile peppers are colorful ornamentals in a garden.

Did you know that a medium-sized chile contains six times the vitamin C as an orange, and two times the vitamin A and betacarotene as a carrot?

Cooking tip: If you can’t stand the fire of hot peppers but still want the flavor, remove the seeds and white membranes, the parts of the pepper that hold most of the heat in the form of capsaicin.

PLANTS

Capsicum annuum – ‘Chiltepin’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum annuum – ‘Jalapeño’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum annuum – ‘Poblano’/’Ancho’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum annuum – ‘Serrano’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum chinense – ‘Habañero’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum frutescens – ‘Bolivian Rainbow’ Chile Pepper

Capsicum frutescens – ‘Tabasco’ Chile Pepper

GROWING TIPS: Chile peppers can be grown as perennials here in the low desert. They prefer a fairly organic, well-drained soil. Light afternoon shade and frequent watering will keep them more robust and productive through the summer. Chile peppers should be protected from frost through the winter.

WILDLIFE GARDEN

This garden showcases that many herbs grown for culinary, medicinal or other uses can also be magnets for attracting wildlife to a garden. Wildlife such as butterflies, birds, ladybugs, and bees adds color, movement, and excitement to your yard. With the loss of so much natural habitat, it is good when we can provide some wildlife with food, shelter or nesting resources.

Special note for wildlife gardens: Many types of wildlife are extremely sensitive to pesticides. Their use will prevent these creatures from visiting your garden.

PLANTS

Achillea millefolium – Yarrow

Chilopsis linearis – Desert-willow

Lavandula multifida – Fern-leaf Lavender

Monarda fistulosa – Bee-balm, Wild Bergamot

Passiflora caerulea – Passion Vine

Salvia leucantha – Mexican Bush Sage

Tanacetum vulgare – Tansy

GROWING TIPS: Wildlife-attracting herbs vary in their sun, soil and water requirements. Many of the non-desert/ non-Mediterranean herbs benefit from an organic soil amended with compost, and midday through afternoon relief from summer’s intense sun. Passion vines, as well as our native desert willow, can help offer summer shade to accommodate these plants. At the same time, they do their part to attract butterflies and hummingbirds and provide color through the warm months.

MEDICINAL GARDEN

Throughout human history, many different cultures have relied on plants for healing. Today, plants are the source of a quarter of all medicines, and many cultures still rely on plants as the primary source of medicines. The herbs in the medicinal garden come from around the world and from our own southwest region. To find out more about native Sonoran Desert medicinal plants and traditional uses visit our Plants and People of the Sonoran Desert Trail.

The plants and information in this exhibit are primarily for reference and education. It is not intended to serve as a manual for self-medication or as a substitute for qualified medical advice. The visitor should be aware that any plant substance, whether used as food or medicine, externally or internally, may be harmful to some people.

Medicinal uses past and present:

Aloe Vera: The thick gel inside the aloe vera leaf is used today for burns, wounds and sunburn. Extracts of leaves were once used on children’s fingers to stop nail biting.

Horehound: This herb can be found today in candy and is also used as a cough suppressant.

Purple Coneflower: Native Americans used this herb as a compress to treat snakebite, fevers, and wounds. More recently, it is known for its antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. It has also been used in AIDS therapy.

PLANTS

Aristolochia watsonii – Snakeroot

Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) – Aloe Vera

Bursera microphylla – Elephant Tree

Echinacea purpurea – Purple Coneflower

Marrubium vulgare – Horehound

Tanacetum parthenium – Feverfew

Tecoma stans – Yellow Bells

GROWING TIPS: This wide range of plants varies in needs for sun exposure, soil conditions, and water. In the low desert, aloe vera and purple coneflower can both benefit from light shade during midsummer. Other plants such as horehound will endure full sun exposure. Horehound and aloe vera will thrive in our desert soil whereas feverfew and coneflower would prefer a richer, organically amended soil. In the heat of the summer, feverfew will need frequent watering, but aloe vera would prefer the soil to dry some between watering.

SENSORY GARDEN

A sensory garden offers a place to relax, meditate, and rejuvenate. Many herbs in this garden offer enchantingly fragrant foliage or blossoms, stimulating texture, or scintillating colors that arouse the senses. Other plants create graceful movement and sound as gentle breezes pass by. A sensory garden is meant for lingering.

How many senses can you use in this garden?

Smell… scented geranium, sage, lavender, thyme

See…color, texture, shapes, distant vistas

Hear… gentle breezes, the rustle of grasses, the hum of hummingbirds and bees

Touch… soft leaves of dittany of Crete, the texture of the warm soil

Taste…savory sage and thyme

PLANTS

Hyptis emoryi – Desert-lavender

Lavandula dentata – French Lavender

Lavandula heterophylla – Sweet Lavender

Pelargonium graveolens – Rose-scented Geranium

Salvia clevelandii – Chaparral Sage

Santolina chamaecyparissus – Grey Santolina, Lavender-cotton

GROWING TIPS: These plants vary in their sunlight, watering, and soil preferences. Scented geraniums thrive with a bit of afternoon shade or filtered the sun, a fairly organic well-drained soil, and moderately frequent watering through the summer. The lavenders, many sages, and santolinas relish full sun exposure and infrequent watering and require excellent soil drainage. A variety of herbs fall between these extremes, with some able to perform well under a wider range of conditions.

TEA GARDEN

Mint and lemon-flavored herbs are among the most popular for herbal teas. With the variety of these plants that thrive in our area, along with other flavored herbs, you can grow a tea blend to relax or stimulate your mood, or simply appeal to your taste buds. Some of the herbs can be harvested year-round while others can be picked at their peak and stored for later brewing. Herbal teas provide a flavorful, healthy and soothing drink. They are caffeine free, may act as a digestive aid, and many have a calming effect, promoting well-being. The part of the plant used to make an herbal tea varies with each plant. The flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark or roots can be steeped to make a drink.

Brewing tip: As a general rule, use one teaspoon of dried herbs, or two teaspoons of fresh herbs to each cup of boiled water for tea.

PLANTS

Aloysia triphylla – Lemon-verbena

Cymbopogon citratus – Lemon-grass

Ephedra spp. – Mormon-tea

Mentha spp. – Mints

Nepeta cataria – Catnip

Poliomintha incana – Hoary Rosemary mint

GROWING TIPS: Many of the non-native tea herbs require an organically rich soil and a good amount of water. These are best located in afternoon shade conditions for the summer. Some of the southwest natives are drought tolerant and thrive in full sun locations. Provide these with well-drained soil.

CULINARY GARDEN

Several of these plants are old familiars to most gardeners. Try some of the less common herbs to experience new flavors to spice up your cuisine. Some culinary herbs are annuals, changing with the seasons. For ease of planting, designate an area for them in your garden.

Cooking tips:

  • Culinary chives can be substituted for scallions to achieve a mild onion flavor.
  • For a great salad add basil, garlic chives, black pepper and balsamic vinegar.
  • Place French tarragon sprigs in vinegar to preserve the subtlety of the fresh herb.

FALL ANNUALS

COOL SEASON

Allium ampeloprasum – Elephant Garlic

Allium cepa – Shallots

Anethum graveolens – Dill

Anthriscus cerefolium – Chervil

Borago officinalis – Borage

Calendula officinalis – Calendula

Coriandrum sativum – Cilantro/Coriander

Salvia columbariae – Desert Chia

Tropaeolum majus – Nasturtium

Viola tricolor – Johnny Jump-ups

SPRING ANNUALS

WARM SEASON

Chenopodium ambrosioides – Epazote

Helianthus tuberosa – Sunchoke, Jerusalem-artichoke

Hyptis suaveolens – Summer-chia, Golden-chia

Porophyllum ruderale – Bolivian Bush-cilantro

Salvia tiliaefolia – Tarahumara Chia

PLANTS

Allium schoenoprasum – Culinary Chives

Crithmum maritimum – Samphire

Foeniculum vulgare v. dulce – Florence Fennel

Petroselinum crispum ‘Italian’ – Italian Flat-leaf Parsley

Sanguisorba minor (Poterium sanguisorba) – Salad Burnet

Tagetes lucida – Mexican-tarragon, Mexican-mint Marigold, Yerba-anis

Tulbaghia violacea – Society-garlic

GROWING TIPS : While many culinary herbs are perennials, some of them are seasonal annuals and must be grown in either the cool season or the warm season here in the low desert. For example, annual cilantro and dill can be planted in the fall to grow through the cool months. Epazote thrives in the heat of summer and dies off with winter’s cold. Some perennials such as culinary chives, French tarragon, and Mexican-tarragon may disappear underground for the winter, re-sprouting with fresh growth the following spring. Parsley, normally a biennial lasting two years, may not endure summer here. Basil, commonly an annual in other regions, can last well past one season here if protected from frost.

GLOSSARY OF HERBAL TERMS

Annual: A plant that grows from seed, flowers, develops seed, and dies within one growing season.

Biennial: A plant that takes two growing seasons to complete its life cycle, flowering, developing seeds and dying in the second year.

Capsaicin: The chemical compound that gives Chile peppers their heat.

Compost: Decomposed organic matter.

Genus: A group of related plant species (one or more species); the first part of the botanical name of a plant.

Herb: A plant that is useful in some way. It may be used in food preparation, or for medicine, tea, cosmetics, aromatherapy, crafting, dyeing, construction, ritual, pest control, or many other things.

Organic matter: Decomposed plant or animal remains.

Perennial: A plant that lives more than two growing seasons, often flowering and producing seed every year.

Species: A group of plants that are alike and can interbreed; the second part of the botanical name of a plant.

The Low Desert Herb Gardening Handbook
Arizona Herb Association

Desert Gardening for Beginners – How to Grow Vegetables, Flowers, and Herbs in an Arid Climate
Cathy Cromell, Linda Guy, Lucy Bradley Arizona Master Gardener Press

The Herb Society of America Encyclopedia Of Herbs and Their Uses
Deni Brown Dorling Kindersley

Growing Herbs from Seed, Cutting, & Root
Thomas DeBaggio Interweave Press

Arizona Herb Association
http://www.azherb.org 602.470.8086, ext. 830

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