Grow Your Own Patchouli Plant

Family:  Lamiaceae
Hardiness:  Protect from frost
Tropical perennial native to Asia.  May be grown in the temperate zone in pots, brought indoors for the winter.  Plant prefers full to part shade, moist, rich soils, humidity.


The plant thrives under good care but fades fast with neglect–it needs watering almost daily, has zero tolerance for frost and will sunburn if not protected by shade.  The seeds are small and are best sown in warm soil, in the light. My favorite method for planting seeds of this sort is to prepare a pot or flat with nice humus potting soil, filling to the lip and leaving the surface rough, not smooth and patted down.  Then, sprinkle the seed over the surface of the soil and tamp firmly.  This allows the seed to fall down between the roughened particles of soil, and then when you tamp it down with the palm of your hand, the seed is nestled into place on the surface or barely sub-surface.  Then, mist with water very carefully so as not to dislodge the seeds, and keep in the light, ever moist,  and nice and warm until germination, which takes between one and three weeks.  Allow the seedlings to grow closely together at first, and when they attain their second set of true leaves, then individuate them carefully and pot up individually to 4-inch pots.  Grow them out that way for awhile, until they fill the pot with roots, and at that point transplant up to gallons. Soon after that, you can make a harvest of the leaves to produce a patchouli sachet, or you can extract your own essential oil if you have a distiller. For all practical purposes, under good growing conditions, you can figure 3 months to harvestable years and 1 year to flowers. As I write this, the pervasive fragrance of Patchouli rises up from the packet before me, and I give thanks for this incredible plant, and wish you to have it!  Also, in cleaning the flowers to obtain the seeds, the scent of patchouli was almost overwhelming, so this leads me to believe that the essential oil content of the dried flowers may be the highest as compared to any other part of the plant.

Patchouli likes a warm, damp climate in fertile, well-draining soil in an area of full to partial sun exposure. This herb is conducive to container growth, or you can plant it directly into the garden. Patchouli herb plant thrives in a soil pH of between 5.5 and 6.2.

Dig a hole matching the depth of the container in which the herb comes in. Place the plant in the hole and tamp the soil down around the herb to eliminate any air pockets. Give the herb 20 inches of room around it to grow into and water it in thoroughly. Thereafter, allow the topsoil to dry before watering. A good layer of mulch around the patchouli herb plant is recommended to retain moisture.

Patchouli Plant Care

Fertilize the herb each spring with an NPK plant food in the amount of 10-10-10 and thereafter once each month until the fall.

Prune any leaves that are dying, diseased or otherwise damaged. Patchouli is susceptible to infection with leaf blight. Prior to pruning the plant, dip the shears in a mix of 70% denatured alcohol and 30% water to retard the spread of the disease.

Caterpillars love patchouli plants as well, so be vigilant about their discovery and removal.

Winter watering should be reduced to allow the plant to go into dormancy. If you grow patchouli plant in containers, they can be moved indoors for protection, especially in areas with harsh winters. First, acclimate the plant by setting it in a shady area for a few days prior to bringing it inside; this will keep it from becoming shocked by the sudden temperature shift. Place the container in a south facing window where it can then receive at least 6 hours of sunlight.

Harvest patchouli on dry mornings when the essential oils have peaked to get the most benefit from the plant.

White Sage {Salvia apiana}

Also, Known As:

  • Bee Sage
  • Sacred Sage
  • White Ceremonial Sage
  • White Sage

Salvia apiana or white sage is a perennially growing evergreen shrub that is indigenous to the southwestern regions of the United States and the adjoining north-western areas of Mexico. This herb is mostly found growing in the wild in the scrub habitat in the coastal regions of Baja California and Southern California, located on the western peripheries of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts.

White sage possibly derives its name from its ashen evergreen leaves, which contain oils and resins. The leaves of white sage emit a potent aroma when they are rubbed. The white to light lavender hued blooms of this plant attract bees, and this is described in the plant’s specific name – apiana. White sage bears many flower stalks, which measure anything between 1 meter and 1.3 meters (3.3 feet to 4.3 feet) in height. Occasionally, the flower stalks of white sage have a pinkish hue and they grow higher than the foliage, especially in spring.

White sage usually grows up to a height of five feet. The plants bloom during the summer. The petals of white sage pucker back, as the stamens dangle on the sides. The white sage flowers are often troublesome for the bees, as they can neither go inside nor get out with ease. However, bumblebees are more apt at dealing with these flowers, while hummingbirds have no trouble at all in collecting nectar from white sage flowers.

Plant Part Used:

Dried leaves.

Herbal Remedy Use:

Native American groups inhabiting the United States’ Pacific coast extensively use white sage or Salvia apiana. The seed of this plant formed the main ingredient of their staple food, locally known as “Pinole”. People belonging to the Cahuilla collected the white sage seeds in large amounts. They pounded the seeds and blended it with wheat flour as well as sugar for preparing biscuits or gruel. Even the leaves and stems of white sage were consumed by members of the Chumash as well as other local tribes.

Many tribes used the seeds of white sage to clear their eyes of foreign objects, much in the same manner as the Europeans used the clary sage seeds. Cahuilla women also used the roots of this plant to prepare a tea, which is reported to provide strength after childbirth, in addition to healing. Several Native American tribes also burnt the leaves of white sage and the smoke was used in various rituals undertaken for purification.

The leaves of this plant were also used to make an infusion, which was employed in the form of a blood tonic as well as to treat colds and coughs. The leaves are also edible. In addition, they are used in the form of a sweat bath and also to treat colds. As aforementioned, the seeds of white sage are used in the form of eye cleaners.

Several native tribes in America, including the Costanoan, Cahuilla, Kawaiisu, Diegeno, and Maidu of California used the seeds of white sage or chia, as known locally, for cleansing as well as healing their eyes. One means of cleaning the eyes was placing a few white sage seeds inside their eyes at bedtime. These seeds became swollen and gelatinous during the night. While the seeds moved around underneath the eyelids during sleep, they pull together foreign substances, if any, on the eyeballs. The seeds were taken out in the morning, cleaning the eyes and also getting rid of all foreign particles.

sacredsmokeFor centuries, various native groups have been using the leaves of white sage in the form of a hair shampoo, hair straightener, and hair dye. They crushed the leaves in water and applied the water to their hair. In addition, freshly crushed leaves were also used to make a poultice, which was applied to the armpits to get rid of foul odors. They also burnt the leaves and used them in the form of an incense to fumigate their homes following the outbreak of infectious ailments like measles.

These native tribes collected the seeds in a flat basket or beater basket. Subsequently, the seeds were dried and pounded into a powdered form for use in meals. In southern California, the Cahuillas used one part of the pounded seeds to blend with three parts wheat flour and a small amount of sugar. This blend was consumed dry, mixed with water in the form of gruel. Alternatively, they baked the powdered seeds into biscuits or cakes.

These tribes harvested the seeds in large quantities and kept them in baskets at home after drying. For instance, the tribes inhabiting north of Santa Barbara stored the dried seeds as well as other foods in small baskets on hand. They especially stored some seeds for the winter, when many other foods were not available. In California, the Chumash, as well as other tribes, also consumed white sage leaves and stems.

Women of the Cahuilla drank an infusion prepared from the roots of white sage after childbirth with a view to getting rid of afterbirth problems as well as support internal healing. Cahuilla people also consumed white sage seeds for treating colds. Similarly, the Diegueno employed the white sage to prepare a tea for curing colds.

These native tribes of America used the white sage leaves in various ways – they smoked the leaves, used them to prepare an herbal tea and also employed the leaves in sweat-houses for treating colds. Members of the Diegueno tribe used the leaves of white sage in the form of a shampoo to cleanse their hair as well as to prevent them from becoming gray untimely. Some tribes also rubbed the leaves against their body or applied the crushed leaves to their body to get rid of any foul smell. In fact, men of the Cahuilla tribe usually did this prior to venturing out for hunting. They also burnt the dry white sage leaves and the smoke was used in the form of an incense during purification rituals. Several native Indian tribes in America hold the white sage in high esteem. This herb is also cherished by many other cultures across the world even to this day. White sage is especially valued for its tender feminine attributes.

White sage is an aromatic herb that has been widely used over the centuries in the form of incense as well as in smudge pots during ceremonies. Hence, this herb is commonly also known as the white ceremonial sage.

Some people also burnt the white sage leaves to fumigate their houses or dwellings following any contagious disease and also for purifying the air during ailments. When drunk in the form of an infusion or tea, white sage offers potent anti-inflammatory properties. White sage tea may also aid in reducing the symptoms of an ulcer.

Culinary Use:

White sage seeds are used for culinary purposes, either raw or after cooking. Native American tribes also mixed the seeds with cereals like wheat or oats, toasted them and subsequently ground them into a fine powder for consuming it dry. Alternatively, they also soaked the white sage seeds in water or fruit juice for the night and drunk the liquid or consumed it along with cereals. Sometimes, the seeds were also used in the form of a spice. On the other hand, white sage leaves are consumed after cooking. The leaves are also used to add flavor to seed mushes. Often, people also consume the young stalks of white sage raw. The tops of ripened or mature stems are peeled and consumed raw.

Native Habitat:

Salvia apiana (white sage) is indigenous to a very small region in southern California as well as the northwestern areas of Mexico. This plant has a preference for the conditions found in this dry, coastal region, which has a sloping milieu on the fringe of the desert. The plants need deep watering only once in two weeks, especially when grown in a sandy soil having proper drainage and a sunny location. Although white sage can endure cool climatic conditions, the performance of the plant will be poor when grown in shade and humid conditions and if they are watered excessively. If you are living in areas where frosting is common, you can grow white sage in pots and keep them indoors. It is best to grow the white sage as annual plants in such areas.

White sage hybridizes very easily with other species belonging to the Salvia genus, especially Salvia clevelandii and Salvia leucophylla.

The ideal conditions for growing white sage include a dry climate. In fact, these plants may be killed if the winter months are too wet. Salvia apiana is unable to endure colder climates and, hence, they die. Plants of this species can only tolerate low temperatures in the range of -5°C and -10°C. White sage seeds are available in health food stores and are usually used to prepare beverages – infusion or tea. White sage is an excellent bee plant. Plants belonging to this genus are seldom disturbed by browsing deer.

For commercial purposes, white sage is usually propagated by its seeds, which are ideally sown in a greenhouse during the March-April period. Normally, it takes about two weeks for the seeds to germinate. When the seedlings have grown sufficiently big to be handled, prick them out and plant them in separate pots. You may transfer the young white sage plants to their permanent positions outdoors during the onset of summer next year. In places where the temperatures hover around the endurance levels of white sage, it is advisable that you grow them in a greenhouse throughout their first winter. You may plant them outdoors during the end of spring in the subsequent year.

White sage can also be propagated from semi-mature wood cuttings. These cuttings can be done at any time during the growing season, as they are generally very successful.


In 1991, scientists at the University of Arizona undertook a study which showed that white sage (Salvia apiana) possesses potential antibacterial qualities, especially against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus, Candida brassicae and Klebsiella pneumoniae.


White sage contains triterpenes and diterpenes, including oleanolic acid, carnosic acid, and ursolic acid.

Possible Side Effects and Precautions:

Although white sage is safe for consumption by most people, this herb should be avoided by women during pregnancy.

 Harvesting White Sage:

While harvesting white sage (Salvia apiana) by cutting the stems one needs to be careful to discriminate between the fleshy and woody parts of the stem. Cutting the fleshy top of the white sage stem will produce two stems in the following year. On the other hand, cutting the woody base of the plant will not promote the growth of new leaves or stem. After cutting the stems, hang them upturned to desiccate them and subsequently bundle them in the form of smudge sticks (dried herbs). You may preserve the dry leaves of the herb for preparing tea or, if you prefer, even use them in your food. The seeds can be collected for sowing in the next year. For this, you need to save the brownish fruits, which are akin to nuts, prior to the release of the seeds.

Herbal Chemistry

A herbalist should be fully aware of details about the pharmacology of herbs, a basic understanding of it is more than enough. Herbs are used for healing the human body, they are considered to be holistic agents, and they are used on a physical and biochemistry level. Many pharmacologists try to find out the constituents of herbs, place them according to their chemical groups and have done numerous researches and have found herbs to be very complex in their characteristics. Herbs contain a huge variety of chemicals like water, inorganic salt, sugars, carbohydrates, proteins that are highly complex, and alkaloids.

Plant Acids:

An example of weak organic acids is generally found among plants, lemon is the perfect example of citric acid. Organic acids can be split into those based on a carbon chain, and those, which contain a carbon ring in their configuration, but what both have in common is the -COOH group. Chain acids are also known as aliphatic acids, which can range from formic acid (the simplest one, found in the stings of the nettles) to the more complex chain acids like valeric acid and citric acid. Valeric acid is being used in sedatives in allopathic medicine.

The ring acids are known as the aromatic acids, they form a crucial pharmacological group. The most uncomplicated aromatic acid is benzoic acid, which is found in foods like cranberries, resins, and balsams, like Peru balsams, gum benzoin, and tolu. These acids are used in antiseptic lotions and ointments and they are also used for antipyretic and diuretic actions. One can cure a chronic bronchial problem just by inhaling these acids.


Alcohols are found in a variety of forms in the plant kingdom, they are mostly a component of volatile oils or sterols, for example, geraniol in attar of rose and the menthol in peppermint oil. Waxes too are also a common form of alcohol. Mixtures of alcohols and fatty acids are generally found on leaves and other parts of the plants. Carnauba wax is acquired from the palm Copernicia cerifera.

Volatile Oils:

Volatile oils are a combination of simple molecules like isoprene or isopentane, which can mix in various ways to produce terpenes. It is a basic mix of 5 carbon molecules, sometimes with slight differences here and there. All this combines to make the volatile oils.

Volatile oils are mostly found in aromatic plants, herbs like peppermint and thyme are the perfect example of volatile oils. The combination of the oils and the smell can be in variations, even if they belong to the same types of the plant, basically, it all depends on the concentration of the oils. When these oils are extracted from the plants, the aromatic oils are produced, which are used for many therapeutic treatments, and the major part of the production is used to manufacture perfumes.

There is a wide range of aromatic oils and they each have specific qualities, though most of these oils have some common characteristics, which are worth learning about.

Most aromatic oils are antiseptics; oils like eucalyptus oil, garlic oil, and thyme oil fall under this category. These oils are absorbed with ease inside the body and they are effective for both internally and externally on the whole body system. When they are consumed internally or applied externally they land up finally in the urinary system, lungs, bronchial, sweat glands, saliva, tears or vaginal fluids. They can even occur in breast milk and during pregnancy can go to the placenta inside the fetus. Apart from having antiseptic functions, it can also encourage the creation of white blood cells, therefore increasing the immune system of the body.

Volatile oils have the quality of arousing the tissues they come in touch with, some oils like the mustard oils irritate the skin slightly while oils like menthol and camphor leave a numb feeling. Both these oils help in digestion arousing the lining of the colon which gives reflex reaction thus increasing the gastric juices to flow, which also makes the person feel hungry. People, who suffer from acute pain, can benefit from these oils by calming the peristalsis in the lower part of the intestines.

Volatile oils are also beneficial for the central nervous system. Oils like for example chamomile oil, are known to calm and sedate while peppermint oil helps in stimulation, both these oils have the quality so easing out any tension in the body system thus reducing conditions like depression or tension. When there is an external application of aromatic oils on the body, the aroma is easily transferred through the nose to the brain, triggering an instant reaction.

Herbs, which contain volatile oils, have to be retained by storing them carefully in sealed bottles or containers, as volatile oils can evaporate with ease.


There is a huge variety of carbohydrates in the plant kingdom, they are found in foods like sugar: fructose and glucose, they are also found in starches, which is the storage of the main energy and they can also be in the form of cellulose which is much more complex or elaborate, which helps in supporting the structure of the plants.

Large cellulose known as polysaccharides combines with other chemicals and produce molecules known as pectins, which are generally found in fruits like apples or even in seaweeds like algin, agar or even carragum, which are found in Irish moss. They are very effective and have the power to cure and are used in producing gels, which are further used in medicines and foods.

Gums and mucilage are carbohydrates, which are complex in nature and are retained in soothing and healing herbs like coltsfoot, plantain, and marshmallow. Once applied it relaxes the lining of the gut, arousing a reflex reaction that goes to the spinal nerves to areas like the lungs and the urinary tract. The mucilage not only reduces irritation, it even reduces inflammation of the alimentary canal, it also decreases the sensitivity of the gastric acids, can cure diarrhea and reduce peristalsis, it also cures the respiratory system, lessens coughing and tension, and increases the secretion of watery mucus.

Phenolic Compounds:

Phenol is a bulging block of many components of plants. The compounds of phenol could be simple in structure or could be a composite of a variety of basic molecule. One of the simplest phenolic compounds is salicylic acid, which is generally found in the combination of sugar, it forms glycoside found in willow, cramp bark, meadowsweet, and wintergreen. It functions as an antiseptic, painkiller and has anti-inflammatory functions too. It is utilized in most allopathic medicines like aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid is the main component if this medicine.

Eugenol oil is found in cloves and it functions like a painkiller, even thymol from thyme oil also cures pains, and both oils contain salicylic acid. Bearberry acts like an antiseptic on the urinary system of the body because it contains phenol hydroquinone.


Tannins in herbs have the quality to function as astringents. They act on proteins and other chemicals to protect the layer of the skin and the mucous membrane. It can even bind the tissue of the gut, decrease diarrhea and also stop any internal bleeding. They are also used for an external application like the treatment of burns, healing wounds and reducing inflammation. Tannins can cure eye infections like conjunctivitis or even infection in the mouth, vagina, cervix or rectum.


The evoking smell of hay is due to the coumarin chemicals. The grass is not the only plant, which contains this aromatic component of coumarins; sweet woodruff also contains these chemicals. Coumarins do not have much effect on the human body but one of its components known, as dicoumarol is a strong anti-clotting agent. Coumarins have been used extensively in allopathic medicine. Small doses of warfarin are used as an anti-clotting drug to cure conditions like thrombosis and as a rat poison, large doses are used.


Anthraquinones are found in plants, which are supposed to be effective laxatives and they are also natural dyes. They are generally glycosides and are found in plants like rhubarb, yellow dock, senna, aloe, and buckthorn. Anthraquinones stimulates the colon after eight to twelve hours of ingestion and they also stimulate the peristalsis of the intestine, all this can be achieved if the natural bile is present. If the colon is over stimulated, then colic pain could occur. Anthraquinones are usually combined with carminative herbs to cure this type of condition.

Flavones and Flavonoid Glycosides:

Flavones and flavonoid glycosides are chemical groups commonly found in most plant components. They can actively act as anti-spasmodic, diuretic, circulatory and cardiac stimulants. Some like rutin, hesperidin, and bioflavonoid vitamin P can aid circulatory system and decrease blood pressure too. Buckwheat is a herb, which can be used effectively for such health problems. Bioflavonoids help in absorption of vitamin C. Milk thistle is another herb, which has a strong presence of flavonoid and can cure an ailing liver.


Saponins have drawn the attention of majority pharmaceutical chemists in the world. They are utilized in the synthesis of cortisone, which is an anti-inflammatory drug, and they are also widely used in the synthesis of sex hormones. Saponins are found in herbs, which do not essentially act in a similar way, the body can use them as raw products to build the necessary chemicals. Natural saponins and synthesized drugs are quite similar, like cortisone and diosgenin, which is found in wild yam.

Golden rod, chickweed, figwort and wild yam all contain saponins, which are used to produce anti-inflammatory drugs. Saponins are very good in stimulating the upper digestive tract and herbs like primrose, mullein, violet and daisy are rich in saponins.

Cardiac glycosides:

Cardiac glycosides were discovered in 1785 in foxglove. A lot of investigations has taken place over this chemical component. They have a lot of similarities to saponins and are used in medicine to give support to heart problems.

Cardiac glycosides are made of a mixture of sugar and steroidal aglycone. The center of activity is charted out by the characteristics of aglycone. In the combination, sugar determines the bioavailability of aglycone, which is quite active.

Cardiac glycosides are found in most flowering plants. Lily of the valley, squill, foxglove and Strophanthus family are the best resources of cardiac glycosides. In therapeutic treatment, cardiac glycosides are very effective in increasing the force and power heart beats, and at the same time keeping the level of the oxygen intact for the heart muscles. They can help the heart to function in a steady manner without straining the organ.

Bitter principles:

Bitter principles stand for a group of chemicals that have an extremely bitter taste. They are diverse in structure and the bitterest ones are iridoids, terpenes, and other groups.

Bitter principles are known to be very effective in most therapeutic treatments. Through the taste bud, they arouse the secretion of the digestive juices and also help the liver to be more active, helping in hepatic elimination.

Sedatives like hops and valerian, cough remedies such as white horehound, anti-inflammatory herbs bogbean and devil’s claw, and the vulnerary marigold have all the properties of bitterness.


Alkaloids are the most powerful group of plant constituents that act effectively on the human body and mind. Under the category of alkaloids, you will find hallucinogen mescaline and the very poisonous brucine. These alkaloids can work on the liver, lungs, nerves and the digestive system of the body. You will find alkaloids in most of the herbs. Alkaloids inside the plants do not really have any specific function, apart from storing excessive nitrogen. Alkaloids as a group are very different in their structure and they have separated into 13 groups accordingly. Their structure is dominated by nitrogen and they have a distinguished physiological activity.

To encourage weight loss there is a supplement known as chitosan, which is basically a fat blocker. Chitosan is derived from chitin which is found in exoskeletons of shrimps and crabs, it is quite similar to plant fiber and cannot be digested easily. If chitosan is consumed orally it behaves like a big sponge absorbing the fat of the body up to four to six times than the body usually does while passing the digestive system. It helps flush out all the excessive fat of the body which could have been metabolized and settled inside the body. It is like you can eat as much as you want if you are consuming chitosan.

The disadvantage of chitosan is that it does not cure chronic overeating at all. It should only be consumed for two weeks at a time to just get a weight loss diet started. Chitosan can be very good in absorbing fat, but at the same time it can be quite harmful in the sense that it can rob the body of essential vitamins like E, A, D and K. If chitosan is consumed, diet supplements like vitamins and essential fatty acids should also be included in the diet too. According to studies, chitosan is considered quite safe for any weight loss program. A test was conducted on two mice, one was administered chitosan while the other was not, the mice which had consumed chitosan and other supplement diets had few precancerous lesions than the one who did not have chitosan at all. It can also lower total blood cholesterol level in the body and raise the level of HDL, known as the good cholesterol, which in turn protects the body against any heart disease. Chitosan is a versatile supplement, it is a good antacid and helps prevent tooth decay.


What does the “C” listed after the active ingredient stand for?

The most common type of dilutions is “C” dilutions (centesimal dilutions). The 1C is obtained by mixing 1 part of the Mother Tincture with 9 parts of ethanol in a new vial and then vigorously shaking the solution (succussion). The result is a 1/100 dilution of the plant (the Mother Tincture being a 1/10 dilution of the plant itself). The 2C is obtained by mixing 1 part of the 1C with 99 parts of ethanol in a new vial and succussing. Recurrently, the 3C is obtained by mixing 1 part of the 2C with 99 parts of ethanol in a new vial and succussing.

What does the “X” listed after the active ingredient stand for?
X dilutions are decimal dilutions prepared similarly to C dilutions, but the factor of dilution is only 1/10 from one dilution to the next.

What does the “K” listed after the active ingredient stand for?
The K refers to a method of manufacturing known as the Korsakovian method. The Korsakovian method dilutes the homeopathic preparation of the substance at the rate of 1 part of the previous dilution with 99 parts of solvent.

What does the “CK” listed after the active ingredient stand for?
Korsakovian dilutions are manufactured using a device specially designed to ensure that the dilution process is reproducible from one dilution to the next. Only one vial is used for the entire process. Using ultra-purified water as the solvent, the machine removes 99% of the Mother Tincture and replaces it with the same volume of solvent. The vial is succussed for 10.5 seconds. The result is called 1CK. The 2CK is prepared identically from the 1CK. The automatic process using only 1 vial allows higher dilutions to be reached. The most common Korsakovian dilutions are 200CK, 1,000CK (also called 1M), 10,000CK (10M), 50,000 CK (50M) and 100,000CK (100M or CM).

What does “200CK” mean?
200CK means that the substance has been homeopathically diluted 200 times at the rate of 1 to 100.

March in the Low Desert

Spring is in the air, or is it?  It still is possible to have freezing temperatures early in the month, so don’t store your frost protection cloth yet.  By mid-March chances of below, freezing temperatures have diminished for the low-desert regions and spring gardening tasks can now be initiated.

Now is a good time to divide clump-forming Agave spp., Aloe spp., Manfreda spp., Hesperaloe spp., and Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica) in the landscape or in containers.

Many deciduous trees will start to produce new leaves as the weather becomes warmer including Mesquites (Prosopis spp.), Desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), Golden Leadball Tree (Leucaena retusa), Feather Tree (Lysiloma watsonii), and Kidneywood (Eysenhardtia orthocarpa).

Stem and flower buds are forming on many cacti at this time.  Look for these buds on Prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.), Chollas (Cylindropuntia spp.) and Hedgehogs (Echinocereus spp.).

Plant your Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) from March through May as these are the ideal months to achieve greater transplanting success.

November through mid-March is the ideal time to plant the Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia).  If unable to plant by mid-March, wait until November for increased chance of survival.  If planted during the summer months, they are more sensitive during the transplant process either from the ground or a container.  They will exhibit more signs of stress and dehydration as well as more prone to rot if over watered.

If rainfall was plentiful during the previous fall-winter months, look for colorful wildflower displays in the desert.

•    Mexican Gold Poppy (Eschscholzia californica ssp. a )
•    California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica ssp. californica)
•    Desert Bluebell (Phacelia campanularia)
•    Scorpion-weeds (Phacelia spp.)
•    Chia (Salvia columbariae)
•    Bladderpod (Lesquerella gordonii)
•    Lupines (Lupinus spp.)
•    Owl-clover (Castilleja exserta)
•    Baby Blue Eyes (Nemophila menziesii)
•    Monkey Flower (Mimulus guttatus)
•    Desert Stork’s Bill (Erodium texanum)
•    Emory’s Rock Daisy (Perityle emoryi)
•    Fiddlenecks (Amsinckia spp.)
•    Parry’s Penstemon (Penstemon parryi)
•    Firecracker Penstemon (Penstemon eatonii)
•    Superb Penstemon (Penstemon superbus)
•    Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa)
•    Evening Primrose (Oenothera caespitosa)
•    Black-foot Daisy (Melampodium leucanthum)
•    Paperflower (Psilostrope cooperi)
•    Desert Verbena (Glandularia gooddingii)
•    Desert-marigold (Baileya multiradiata)
•    Deer Vetch (Lotus rigidus)
•    Fendler’s Bladderpod (Lesquerella fendleri)
•    Wishbone Bush (Mirabilis laevis)
•    Globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua)
•    Angelita Daisy (Tetraneuris acaulis)
•    Gopher Plant (Euphorbia rigida)
•    Scarlet Sage (Salvia coccinea)
•    Fleabane (Erigeron divergens)
•    Blue Dicks (Dichelostemma capitatum)
•    Bush Morning Glory (Convolvulus cneorum)
•    Desert Zinnia (Zinnia acerosa)
•    Creosote (Larrea tridentata)
•    Bee Brush (Aloysia gratissima)
•    Desert-honeysuckle (Anisacanthus thurberi)
•    Baja Fairy Duster (Calliandra californica)
•    Pink Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla)
•    Chuparosa (Justicia californica)
•    Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens)
•    Mexican-honeysuckle (Justicia spicigera)
•    Giant Bur-sage (Ambrosia ambrosioides)
•    Bur-sage (Ambrosia deltoidea)
•    Red Barberry (Mahonia haematocarpa)
•    Woolly Butterfly Bush (Buddleja marrubiifolia)
•    Bitter Condalia (Condalia globosa)
•    Texas Mountain-laurel (Calia secundiflora syn. Sophora secundiflora)
•    Bush Dalea (Dalea pulchra)
•    Tree Ocotillo (Fouquieria macdougalii)
•    Desert-lavender (Hyptis emoryi)
•    Ragged Rockflower (Crossosoma bigelovii)
•    Bush Germander (Teucrium fruticans)
•    Wolfberries/Thorn berries (Lycium spp.)
•    Little-leaf Sumac (Rhus microphylla)
•    Sugar Bush (Rhus ovata)
•    Autumn Sage (Salvia greggii)
•    Desert Sage (Salvia dorrii)
•    Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa)
•    Paperbag Bush (Salazaria mexicana)
•    Feathery Senna (Senna artemisioides)
•    Parish’s Goldeneye (Viguiera parishii)
•    Trixis (Trixis californica)
•    Sweet Acacia (Vachellia farnesiana syn. Acacia farnesiana)
•    Palo Blanco (Mariosousa willardiana syn. Acacia willardiana)
•    Blue Palo Verde (Parkinsonia florida)
•    Little-leaf Palo Verde (Parkinsonia microphylla)
•    Palo Brea (Parkinsonia praecox)
•    Mexican-ebony (Havardia mexicana)
•    El Chañar (Geoffroea decorticans)
•    Baby Bonnets (Coursetia glandulosa)
•    Blackbrush Acacia (Vachellia rigidula syn. Acacia rigidula)
•    Shoestring Acacia (Acacia stenophylla)
•    Beavertail Cactus (Opuntia basilaris)
•    Silver Cholla (Cylindropuntia echinocarpa)
•    Mother of Hundreds (Mammillaria compressa)
•    Mammillaria senilis
•    Viznaga Caballona (Ferocactus macrodiscus)
•    Mohave Yucca (Yucca schidigera)
•    Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia)
•    Don Quixote’s Lace (Yucca treculeana)
•    Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus macrocarpus)
•    Live Forevers (Dudleya spp.)
•    Crown of Thorns (Euphorbia milii)
•    Yellow Trailing Iceplant (Malephora lutea)
•    Coppery Ice Plant (Malephora crocea)
•    Ice plants (Drosanthemum spp.)
•    Kalanchoe orgyalis
•    Succulent Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.)
•    Aloes including Aloe x ‘Blue Elf’, Partridge-Breast Aloe (Aloe variegata), and Coral Aloe (Aloe striata)

Look for flowering Claret-cup (Echinocereus continues), Engelmann’s Hedgehog (Echinocereus engelmannii) and Green Hedgehog (Echinocereus viridiflorus) later in the mon



As temperatures rise during the month of March, turn on your irrigation timer.  Test the timer to see if it is working properly and replace back-up batteries if necessary. Check for leaks and clogged emitters and flush out the poly lines.

How much to water depends on many factors including: soil type, weather, rainfall, microclimates, cultural practices, plant size and species, and whether the plants is newly planted or established in the landscape (two years or more). Below are general guidelines to help you determine how much and how often to water your landscape and container plantings to keep them healthy when rainfall is lacking.

Established native or desert-adapted trees and shrubs should be watered at least once to twice monthly. Water at least three feet deep for your trees and two feet deep for your shrubs.

Natural rainfall may be adequate for most well-established cacti and succulents. However, if rainfall is insufficient, water may be needed at least once to twice during the month of March. Water your cacti and succulents to a depth of at least 8-12 inches.

Established herbaceous perennials, groundcovers, and vines should be watered every two to three weeks and at least one foot deep.

Wait a week after planting your cacti and succulents before watering to minimize the chance of rot. After the initial irrigation of your succulents, allow the soil to dry out and water every 10-14 days. Cacti may need to be watered once more after initial watering during the month of March, but allow the soil to dry out between watering.

Newly planted desert-adapted trees and shrubs need to be watered more frequently until established.  It can take up to 3-5 years for trees and at least 1-2 years for shrubs to become established in the landscape. After planting your trees and shrubs, they should be watered immediately and for the next few days to keep the root ball from drying out. Schedule your irrigation cycle for trees and shrubs every 7-10 days during the month of March. Allow the soil to dry out between irrigations and always water deeply, three feet for trees and two feet for shrubs.

Newly planted desert-adapted herbaceous perennials, groundcovers and vines should be watered immediately and for the next few days to keep the root ball from drying out. Schedule your irrigation cycle for herbaceous perennials, groundcovers and vines for at least once to twice weekly and to a depth of one foot. Allow soil to dry out between watering.

Continue to water your annual wildflowers at least every two weeks to prolong flowering.

Agaves and other succulents (Aloe spp., Dudleya spp., Cotyledon spp., Pedilanthus macrocarpus, Euphorbia spp.) in containers should be watered at least once to twice this month. Cacti in containers should be watered at least once this month. However, cacti and succulents in small containers may need to be watered more often including cacti and succulent seedlings.

Keep an eye on your warm-season annuals and herbaceous perennials in containers. Water them at least once to twice weekly.


Plant warm-season cacti and succulents including:
•    Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea)
•    Prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.)
•    Barrel Cacti (Ferocactus spp.)
•    Hedgehogs (Echinocereus spp.)
•    Pincushions (Mammillaria spp.)
•    Agaves (Agave spp.)
•    Yuccas (Yucca spp.)
•    Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica)
•    Desert Spoon (Dasylirion wheeleri)
•    Red-yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora)
•    Giant Hesperaloe (Hesperaloe funifera)
•    Elephant Food (Portulacaria afra)
•    Slipper Plant (Pedilanthus macrocarpus)
•    native Limberbushes (Jatropha spp.)

When transplanting cacti and succulents, mark either the south or west side and plant facing the orientation you marked to avoid the burning of tender tissues. Most nurseries will mark the side of the container to help you determine proper planting orientation. However, if the original orientation is not known, newly planted cacti and succulents need to be covered with shade cloth if plant surface appears to yellow or pale suddenly. Use a shade cloth rated between 30-60%, anything higher will block most of the sunlight and will not be suitable for your cacti and succulents. You may need to keep the shade cloth on the plant for the duration of the summer.

Plant native and desert-adapted trees including: 
•    Ironwood (Olneya tesota)
•    Blue Palo Verde (Parkinsonia florida)
•     Little-leaf Palo Verde (Parkinsonia microphylla)
•    Mesquites (Prosopis spp.)
•    Golden Leadball Tree (Leucaena retusa)
•    Chihuahuan-orchid Tree (Bauhinia lunarioides)
•    Texas-olive (Cordia boissieri)
•    Desert-willow (Chilopsis linearis)
•    Baby Bonnets (Coursetia glandulosa)

Plant warm-season shrubs including: 
•    Yellow Bells (Tecoma spp.)
•    Desert Cotton (Gossypium thurberi)
•    Sennas (Senna spp.)
•    Velvet-pod Mimosa (Mimosa dysocarpa)
•    Fire Bush (Hamelia patens)
•    Ruellia (Ruellia peninsularis)
•    Mexican Bush Sage (Salvia leucantha)
•    Sky Flower (Duranta erecta)
•    Bird of Paradise species (Caesalpinia spp.)

Plant warm-season herbaceous perennials including:
•    Datura (Datura wrightii)
•    Desert Four O’Clocks (Mirabilis multiflora)
•    Wine Cups (Callirhoe involucrata)
•    Arizona Foldwing (Dicliptera resupinata)
•    Gaura (Gaura lindheimeri)
•    Hummingbird Trumpet (Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium)
•    Plumbago (Plumbago scandens)

Many vines can also be planted at this time including: 
•    Queen’s Wreath (Antigonon leptopus)
•    Yuca (Merremia aurea)
•    Passion Flowers (Passiflora spp.)
•    Slender Janusia (Janusia gracilis)
•    Arizona Canyon Grape (Vitis arizonica)

When planting desert-adapted plants it is usually unnecessary to back-fill with soil amendments and vitamins or to add rooting hormones. However, a slow-release fertilizer high in nitrogen and phosphorous can be added to the back-fill, if necessary.

Many cacti can be started from seed at this time. Seed can be soaked overnight in water to help start the germination process.  Place seed in a well-draining soil mix (½ quality potting soil and ½ perlite or pumice) and lightly cover. Keep soil moist until germination occurs.

Sow seed of warm-season annuals and herbaceous perennials including:
•    Mexican Hat (Ratibida columnifera)
•    Red Sage (Salvia coccinea)
•    Mexican Chia (Salvia hispanica)
•    Tarahumara Chia (Salvia tiliaefolia)
•    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
•    Numerous cultivars
•    Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)
•    Summer Chia (Hyptis suaveolens)
•    Chocolate Flower (Berlandiera lyrata)
•    Tickseeds (Coreopsis spp.)
•    Golden Crownbeard (Verbesina encelioides)

Warm-season vegetable seeds started indoors in January can now be transplanted to your garden. Vegetables to transplant include:
•    Globe and Jerusalem artichokes
•    Eggplant
•    Peppers
•    Tomatoes
•    Tomatillos
•    Sweet potato slips

Try the many varieties of chiles such as Del arbol, Chiletepin, Mirasol, and Tabasco.

Vegetable seeds to sow include:
•    Beets (early half of the month)
•    Carrots
•    Sweet corn
•    Flour corn
•    Popcorn
•    Cucumbers
•    Jicama
•    Cantaloupe
•    Watermelon
•    Tomatillos
•    Muskmelon
•    Green onions
•    Pumpkins
•    Radishes
•    Summer squash
•    Winter squash
•    Gourds
•    Sunflowers
•    Black-eyed peas

By mid-month plant amaranth, Lima bean, snap bean, okra, and peanut. Try the many types of native beans such as Chihuahua Canario, O’odham Pink, Tohono O’odham Vayo Amarillo, and Yoeme Purple String from Native Seeds/SEARCH.

•    Anise
•    Basil
•    Catnip
•    Chives
•    Epazote
•    Fennel
•    Feverfew
•    Horehound
•    Hyssop
•    Lemon balm
•    Salad cress
•    Parsley
•    Safflower
•    Salad burnet
•    Santolina
•    Fenugreek
•    Winter & summer savory
•    Thyme
•    Yarrow
•    Sesame



•    Basil
•    Bay
•    Cuban-oregano
•    Lemon grass
•    Lemon verbena
•    Mexican-oregano
•    Chives
•    Curry
•    Feverfew
•    French tarragon
•    Garlic chives
•    Germander
•    Horehound
•    Lavender
•    Lemon balm
•    Marjoram
•    Mint
•    Oregano
•    Parsley
•    Rue
•    Sage
•    Santolina
•    Winter & summer savory
•    Scented geraniums
•    Tansy
•    Thyme
•    Yarrow




Pruning should be done to maintain plant health (remove dead, damaged or diseased portions, cross branching, etc.), to highlight the “natural” shape of the plant, to train a young plant, and to eliminate hazards.  Excessive or heavy pruning causes significant stress to trees and shrubs.  The best practices are to prune the least amount necessary and prune for legitimate reasons.  How much to prune depends on the size, species, age, as well as your intentions.  A few good principles to remember–a tree or shrub can recover from several small pruning wounds faster than from a single large wound and never remove more than 25% of the canopy in a year.  For more information register for a Garden class offered on pruning that will teach you the proper pruning techniques for trees and shrubs or visit for information on proper pruning of young and mature trees.

By mid-month frost damaged plants can be safely pruned. Prune evergreen trees and shrubs.

Pruning newly planted trees and shrubs is not recommended and in fact can be detrimental. However, corrective pruning off broken or torn branches and/or limbs can be done at planting time. Save other pruning activities for the second or third year. For more information on developing a healthy tree visit

Now is a good time to prune summer and fall flowering shrubs including:
•    Texas Sages (Leucophyllum spp.)
•    Yellow Bells (Tecoma stans)
•    Lantana (Lantana camara)
•    Turpentine Bush (Ericameria laricifolia)
•    Black Dalea (Dalea frutescens)
•    Mexican-honeysuckle (Justicia spicigera)
•    Sky Flower (Duranta erecta)

Wait to prune your prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) and chollas (Cylindropuntia spp.) until after flowering. Spent stalks of aloes, agaves and other succulents can be removed at this time.

Warm-season herbaceous perennials, groundcovers and vines can be pruned at this time including:
•    Chocolate Flower (Berlandiera lyrata)
•    Plumbago (Plumbago scandens)
•    Mexican Hat (Ratibida columnifera)
•    Gaura (Gaura lindheimeri)
•    Mealy-cup Sage (Salvia farinacea)
•    Rock Verbena (Glandularia pulchella)
•    Trailing Lantana (Lantana montevidensis)
•    Dyssodia (Thymophylla pentachaeta)
•    Queen’s Wreath (Antigonon leptopus)
•    Passion Vines (Passiflora spp.)
•    Yellow Orchid-vine (Callaeum macropterum)

Prune by cutting back to emerging growth or to the basal rosette (group of leaves arranged from a central point).

Continue to deadhead annuals and herbaceous perennials to encourage continued flowering including Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata), Red Sage (Salvia coccinea), Angelita-daisy (Tetraneuris acaulis), and Gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella).


Most native and desert-adapted plants in the landscape do not generally require fertilizer as they are adapted to our soil conditions. In most cases, fertilizers are generally applied to prevent deficiencies. If fertilizers are needed, one application for the year is usually sufficient.

Now is the time to fertilize your warm-season cacti, succulents, herbaceous and woody perennials, and annuals in containers. Periodic fertilization may be needed for plants in containers as nutrients will have diminished in the soil over time. Depending on the type of fertilizer used, follow directions on the label.

Continue to fertilize your vegetable and herb garden as needed.  March is also a good time to apply a layer of composted mulch to your vegetable and herb beds.


Aphids can be found on landscape plants or on your vegetables. Allow natural predators such as lacewings, praying mantis, lady beetles and even hummingbirds to control the aphid population. You can also spray with insecticidal soap, but check to make sure beneficial insects are not presently working.

If you notice a tattered appearance on your landscape plants such as Evening Primroses (Oenothera spp.), Sacred Datura (Datura wrightii) and Gaura (Gaura lindheimeri) it may be the flea beetle in action. A different species of flea beetle may also harm your vegetables including tomatoes, eggplants, carrots, and cabbages. The flea beetle larvae and adults can be destructive and they can be difficult to control.

You may notice small, circular cuts on the leaf margins at this time. This is the handiwork of leaf-cutter bees, important pollinators. The leaf-cutter bees use the cut leaf to line their nest and then lay an egg in each cavity. The damage is cosmetic and does not harm the plant. Control methods are unnecessary.

Look for mealybugs on your cacti and succulents. These scale insects can be difficult to control due to their ability to reproduce rapidly and they quickly acquire resistance to chemical controls. Spray mealybugs with a 70% alcohol-water solution.

Fine webbing between leaves or stippling on leaves may indicate the presence of spider mites. These plant mites cause damage by sucking contents from the leaves and are difficult to detect due to their small size. Plants that are water stressed may become susceptible to infestation. Dusty conditions can also lead to spider mite outbreaks. Make sure your plants are well-watered and wash off accumulated dust on plants to manage spider mite problems. You can also remove by using a fast spray of water or by spraying insecticidal soap to control populations. There are many biological controls that feed on spider mites including lacewings, predatory mites and big-eyed bugs. Using pesticides is not recommended as pesticides do not help manage the population, but can actually cause the population to intensify.

Cochineal scale, the cottony, white substance on your prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) and chollas (Cylindropunita spp.) may be active now. Remove by using a fast stream of water or spray insecticidal soap.

Agave snout weevils become active during the warm months and infestation may not be apparent until it is too late.

Psyllids may be active during the month of March. Psyllids are sap feeders and many are plant specific or feed on a closely related group of plants. High populations of psyllids can cause distortion and die back of new growth, and in some cases defoliation. To keep populations under control do not overwater or over fertilize your plants as this causes excessive growth.  Yellow sticky traps can also be used to control the adult population.

A white, frothy substance may be visible on plant stems. This is caused by spittle bugs. Manage by spraying stem off with a strong jet of water to remove infestation. Spittle bugs generally do not cause much damage to plants.

Weeds that germinated with the fall-winter rains will begin to flower at this time. You can manually remove by hand. To manage weeds in larger areas, spray with glyphosate following directions on the label. Adding a small amount of marker dye in the glyphosate solution can be helpful to avoid spraying the same areas twice. When using a chemical spray use an old pair of shoes that will never be worn indoors.  The glyphosate product can be used around cacti and most succulents without damaging them.  It is also inactive in the soil, so it will not harm the roots of other plants.

You may notice rabbits eating new, tender growth on your plants or flowers. It may be necessary to cage plants temporarily, or spray Liquid Fence TM to help deter these animals.

February in the Low Desert

In February, continue to prepare for frost events and take necessary frost protection measures. Don’t let a warm week in February fool you into believing spring has arrived. The low-desert can still have periods of freezing temperatures during the month.

Mesquites may ooze an amber-colored resin; this can be normal or released as a result of an injury. The exudates are often sweet smelling and tasting. If the exudates are dark in color, sticky and odiferous it is caused by a bacterial infection called slime flux.  You can prune affected branches, but once it has been established the tree will remain diseased and take years to die.

February is still a good time to prepare a new vegetable garden bed for spring planting. Prepare your vegetable bed by using a digging fork or rototilling to approximately 12-18 inches deep. Do not work soil if it is too wet as it can permanently damage the soil structure. Apply compost generously (several inches) and incorporate it into the loosened soil. If you have an existing vegetable garden this is also a good time to add compost.

Think about constructing a compost pile for your vegetable and/or flower garden.

Sudden warm spells during the month of February can cause many of your winter vegetables to bolt into flowering such as cabbage, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, and bok choy. Harvest these vegetables before flowering as many of these vegetables may become bitter and inedible.

Blooming plants can include:
•    Red Barberry (Mahonia haematocarpa syn. Berberis haematocarpa)
•    Desert Holly (Atriplex hymenelytra)
•    Bur-sage (Ambrosia deltoidea)
•    Giant bur-sage (Ambrosia ambrosioides)
•    White bur-sage (Ambrosia dumosa)
•    Fremont’s Wolfberry (Lycium fremontii)
•    Feathery Cassia (Senna artemisioides ssp. filifolia syn. Senna nemophila)
•    Baja Senna (Senna purpusii)
•    Spotted Emu Bush (Eremophila maculata ‘Valentine’TM)
•    Indigo Bush (Dalea bicolor)
•    Emu Bush (Eremophila laanii ‘Pink Beauty’)
•    Emu Bush (Eremophila hygrophana)
•    Sweet Acacia (Vachellia farnesiana syn. Acacia farnesiana)
•    Succulent Geranium (Pelargonium magenteum x echinatum)
•    Succulent Geranium (Pelargonium klinghardtense)
•    Aloe ‘Rudikoppe’
•    Aloe ‘Cynthia Giddy’
•    Cape Aloe (Aloe  ferox)
•    Gariep River Aloe (Aloe gariepensis)
•    Aloe aculeata
•    Coral Aloe (Aloe striata)
•    Aloe x ‘Hercules’
•    Partridge Breast Aloe (Aloe variegata)

Some annual wildflowers may commence blooming at the end of the month.  Early-blooming annuals can include   Bladderpod (Lesquerella gordonii), Mexican Gold Poppy (Eschscholzia californica ssp. mexicana), Desert Bluebells (Phacelia campanularia) and Arroyo Lupine (Lupinus succulentus).


Your irrigation timer should be turned off.  Consider an overall watering of landscape plants at the end of the month if rainfall is insufficient.  Remember to follow the 1, 2, 3 rule:  water mature trees to a depth of 3 feet, shrubs to a depth of 2 feet, and herbaceous perennials, agaves, vines, and groundcovers to a depth of 1 foot.

Young and newly transplanted plants need to be watered more frequently than established plants.  Watering deeply encourages roots to extend deeper into the soil and thus, helps the plant become established over time.

Annual wildflowers may need to be watered at least once to twice during the month of February if rainfall is insufficient.

Agaves and other succulents (Aloe spp., Dudleya spp., Cotyledon spp., Echeveria spp.) in containers should be watered at least once to twice this month.  Cacti in containers should be watered at least once this month.  However, cacti and succulents in small containers may need to be watered more often including cacti and succulent seedlings.


Continue to plant cold-hardy and fall-winter growers:
•    Globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua)
•    Penstemons (Penstemon spp.)
•    Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa)
•    Blackfoot Daisy (Melampodium leucanthum)
•    Golden Columbine (Aquilegia chrysantha)
•    Goodding’s Verbena (Glandularia gooddingii)
•    Red Justicia (Justicia candicans)
•    Fragrant Evening Primrose (Oenothera caespitosa)
•    Desert Milkweed (Asclepias subulata)
•    Trixis (Trixis californica)
•    Cleveland Sage (Salvia clevelandii)
•    White Sage (Salvia apiana)
•    Aloes (Aloe spp.)

Vegetables to transplant include Jerusalem and globe artichokes, leaf lettuce, potato, and watermelon.  Swiss chard, kohlrabi, and head lettuce should be planted the first part of the month. Plant tomatoes and peppers during the second half of February. Be prepared to cover your tomatoes and peppers with frost cloth if we get periods of freezing temperatures.

Vegetable seeds to sow include:
•    beets
•    bok choy
•    carrots
•    collard greens
•    eggplant
•    lentils
•    leaf lettuce
•    mustard greens
•    green onions
•    Irish potatoes
•    radishes
•    turnips

Spinach, mesclun, garbanzo beans, peas (English, snap, snow), and dry onion seeds should be planted before mid-February.

Vegetable seeds to sow the second part of February include:
•    sweet corn
•    cantaloupe
•    cucumbers
•    muskmelon
•    summer squash
•    watermelon

Seedlings will need to be covered with frost cloth to prevent freeze damage.

Herb seeds to sow include:
•    anise
•    basil
•    caraway
•    catnip
•    chamomile
•    cumin
•    epazote
•    fennel
•    feverfew
•    horehound
•    hyssop
•    lemon balm
•    oregano
•    parsley
•    safflower
•    salad burnet
•    summer and winter savory
•    thyme
•    sesame


Herbs to transplant include:
•    bay
•    catnip
•    chives
•    garlic chives
•    germander
•    horehound
•    lavender
•    lemon balm
•    lemon grass
•    marjoram
•    mint
•    oregano
•    rue
•    sage
•    santolina
•    scented geraniums
•    thyme
•    tansy
•    yarrow
•    French tarragon


Divide overgrown plantings of chives, garlic chives, mint, and lemon grass.


As tempting as it may be, do not prune any plants damaged by an earlier frost.  Frost-damaged plants should be pruned in the springtime.

Prune bunch and ornamental grasses such as Muhley (Muhlenbergia spp.), Purple Three-Awn (Aristida purpurea) and Grama Grass (Bouteloua spp.) to rejuvenate.  These bunch and ornamental grasses can be pruned within a couple inches to the ground.

Deciduous trees should be thinned and reduced by mid-month.

Continue to deadhead flowering annuals and perennials to encourage additional blooms.


Landscape plants will not need to be fertilized until spring.

Do not fertilize warm-season plants in containers.  However, cool-season plants in containers may need to be fertilized.

Continue to fertilize your vegetable garden as needed.


Aphids can be found on landscape plants or on your winter vegetables.  Allow natural predators such as lacewings, praying mantis and lady beetles to control the aphid population.

Cabbage loopers (small, pale green caterpillars with light-colored stripes along their bodies) may be present in your vegetable garden.  Look for small, irregular holes on the leaf surface of your vegetable plants.   Damage is common on broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, beets, lettuce, peas and many other garden vegetables.  Control by hand removal or allow natural predators to keep the population in check.  An application of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) can also be used as a biological alternative to pesticides.

A ‘Greener Garden’

One of the greatest benefits of having a garden is controlling how your food is grown. Growing organically ensures your food is free of commercial pesticides—pollutants that seep into the ground or atmosphere. Starting an organic garden is the perfect way to ensure you are giving healthful eats to your family, and protecting the earth.


1. Right plant in right place. Don’t fight your site, but rather, embrace your sunlight levels, climate, and soil type, and choose varieties that will naturally thrive in your gardens’ conditions, reducing the need for excess water or amendment.


2. Compost. Reduce landfill waste by composting yard scraps and food waste. These organic products create methane in a landfill environment which, unharnessed, is a pollutant.


3. Water wisely. Conserve water by watering deeply and less frequently, encouraging plants to build deeper, water-mining roots. You can also improve your soil’s ability to hold water by adding organic material. Water in the evening or morning to prevent excessive evaporation. Mulch will insulate and protect soils, further slowing evaporation. Finally, make sure you are watering with just the right amount; under- or over-watering can cause plant stress, which acts like an open invitation to pest and disease.


4. Prevention is key to a healthy garden. Rotate plant families (see inside of packets) annually, so they are not grown in the same space but once every three years, reducing debris build-up and a potential for disease. Clean up the garden at the end of the season and avoid composting any disease or pest-infested material. Invite beneficial insects into the garden by sowing flowering varieties they are attracted to (like borage, alyssum, and dill). This way, when pests arrive, you already have a hungry, resident army waiting in the “wings”. Scout for pests, diseases, and natural predators weekly so you can identify problems early, and decide if action is needed. Use organic pesticide as a last option, to avoid harming bees, butterflies, and other beneficial insects. If you must spray, do so in the early morning or evening when most bees are less active, and avoid spraying flowers.


5. Sow a cover crop! Cover crop enriches the soil, fights weeds, and breaks up compacted soil naturally. Cover crops can also be used to create an insectory (a dedicated area that provides habitat for beneficial insects).


6. Know your strengths. Submit a soil test for analysis. By understanding your unique garden site you can know exactly what amendments are needed, avoiding pests, diseases, and pollution, which can be caused by over-fertilizing. Improving soil by reaching the ideal, 5–6% organic matter also helps conserve water and prevent run-off.

Why Heirlooms Matter

For hundreds of generations, humans all over the planet have been growing crops and saving seeds from their best plants to sow the following season. Seeds have a rich history and are very important to agriculture.

For hundreds of generations, humans all over the planet have been growing crops and saving seeds from their best plants to sow the following season. No one had a degree in horticulture, and it’s safe to say the vast majority of them couldn’t even read or write since most of the work was done before the invention of the written word!

What’s important is that these gardeners knew what they liked and needed and, over millennia, domesticated crop plants emerged. With each new season, these crops became a little earlier, a little more productive, a little more suited to the local conditions.

Heirloom seed types are thus products of their environment and of their growers’ selection. They are often superbly adapted to the conditions under which they were developed — as, for example, the drought-tolerant varieties native to Southwestern agriculture.

Such is the immense work that had already gone into creating these precious crop plants when scientific breeding work began, slightly over a century ago, and this irreplaceable heritage furnished the building blocks of modern breeding.

Modern science, giddy with its initial achievements, was quick to tout the alleged superiority of modern lines, which were often only a few generations removed from the original types received from various native peoples around the globe. A credulous public bought into these claims and within the space of a couple of generations, the old varieties were cast aside in favor of “progress.”

Today, something like 90 percent of the varieties that existed at the beginning of the 20th century is extinct — just gone, never more to return. So it falls to the generations living today to try to salvage the tiny fraction that remains, and then pass along, renewed, to our posterity. Hence the designation “heirlooms.” What another legacy could possibly be more precious?

The fact that heirloom plants are open-pollinated means that all individuals within a variety share a fairly uniform genetic makeup. This, in turn, means the entire population “breeds true,” so long as no outside genetics are introduced into the population. That’s a fancy way of saying: “You can save seed from heirloom types, generation after generation, just as growers have done for centuries.” You can’t do that with hybrids!

There are lots of great reasons to save seed. If you save seed, you have the comfort of knowing that you have a secure supply of treasured varieties, no matter whether they remain commercially available or disappear. If pure food is important to you, you know just how the seed was grown, because you grew it. If you make careful selections of the best-performing individuals to parent the next generation of plants, over the years you’ll actually be creating a distinct strain, uniquely adapted to your own climate and growing conditions.

Saving seed adds a new dimension to gardening because it allows the closing and repetition of a natural cycle right in your own garden. It puts you in the driver’s seat — you get to select for whatever traits and qualities that are important to you. You might also save some money over time, yes, but what’s more important is you’ll be stepping up to the plate and taking your turn in the endless chain of generations of growers and generations of crop varieties.

Lots of excellent books and articles have been written about the ins and outs of saving your own home-grown seed, including many in this publication. No very comprehensive instructions can be given in this article. There are plenty of details to be considered, and a little advance study can save years of trial and error. Fortunately, with just a bit of attention and planning, saving seed from most veggies is ultimately very easy. After all, your plants are all set up to make their seeds — you just need to know how to step out of the way and let it happen.

Seeds are produced within flowers. It’s surprising how often experienced gardeners have missed this one crucial point. Some flowers, like roses or squashes, are very obvious, even showy. Others may be inconspicuous, barely noticeable at all. But in higher plants, the basic process is the same: Flowers are the plant’s reproductive organs, and seed is produced only after an exchange of genetic material. The medium for this natural transfer is pollen. Pollen is produced within the flower and gets distributed by wind, insects or many other means.

Pollination has to occur for seeds to develop. Exactly how pollen is transferred makes all the difference in planning seed saving. The reason is simple: For true seed, the pollen needs to come from a parent of the same variety. If a flower receives pollen from a flower of some other variety, the seed will be “crossed,” that is, it will not come out a uniform to either parent. So you need to make sure that chance pollination is reduced or eliminated. This is most readily accomplished by isolating the parent plants by a sufficient distance that chance crosses with other types are unlikely.

The usual way is to isolate by distance; you simply plant your parent plants far enough away from other types so that chance pollination is unlikely. The distance varies from crop to crop — some crops, like common beans or lettuce, are almost always self-pollinating and chance crossing almost never occurs even when many varieties are growing in close proximity. Other types need more distance. Wind-pollinated crops like corn, amaranth, and beets need the greatest isolation distance, as wind-borne pollen can travel a mile or more!

Once you’ve protected your plants from accidental crossing, wait for the seeds to mature. Everyone knows what mature bean or pea seeds look like, but with some other types, you have to let the fruit mature longer than you would for eating. Cucumbers and eggplants, for example, are usually harvested in an immature stage for eating. To get seeds, you must let cukes mature until they are very big, plump, and usually soft. Eggplants need to undergo a final color change — purple-fruited types will turn brown, white types will turn yellow and so on. It cannot be overstated: To get good viable seed, you need to allow full maturity before harvesting.

Harvesting consists of collecting mature fruits and extracting and drying the seeds. Some crops will yield dry pods or seed heads containing dry seeds. Beans, corn, okra, peas, and lettuce are examples. You simply pick the dried pods and shell out the seeds, or with lettuce, gently pluck the loose dry seeds from the dandelion-like seed head.

Other types are mature while contained in moist structures like tomatoes, peppers, squashes, and so on. With these, seed can be individually removed from the fruits by hand. Or, to get larger quantities, whole fruits may be crushed or scooped and fermented briefly to allow the seeds to easily rinse free of the pulp.

In either case, be sure to allow your seeds to dry fully before storage. Beans and peas should be too hard to be dented with your fingernail. Squash and melon seed should snap when bent sharply — if they only bend without breaking, they are probably too moist. Allow drying to continue. A small fan can keep air moving around the seeds, securing the quick dry-down that is preferred for good viability.

Obviously, most seeds will be stored at least until the right planting time the following season. Successful seed storage is crucial because often you can save far more than enough seed to plant in one or two years’ gardening. Storing the seeds frees you from having to save seed of a particular variety every season. Instead, you can save seeds from other varieties, which over time allow you to build up a very valuable home seed bank.

The best storage conditions for most common types is cool and dry. A common guideline is to add the temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit) plus the relative humidity. The lower the number you derive, the better. But so long as the total is under 100, you have adequate storage conditions. The figures given at right reflect average times that various crop seed may be stored, retaining good viability, in ordinary conditions figured according to the above equation. Often, seeds will store much longer than this, and with correct freezer storage, most seeds will be viable for decades.

Because so many crops need to be isolated for long distances, not all crops are suitable for seed saving in all locations. But what you cannot accomplish in your garden, someone else can manage in hers, and the converse is also often true. The solution is simple: trade!

The original and, to some, quintessential organization to distribute seeds is Seed Savers Exchange. A modest annual membership fee covers publication of the annual Yearbook, where hundreds of members list varieties whose seed they have grown and saved. Other members pore over the Yearbook and order fascinating seeds. You don’t need to list anything to join and order from the Yearbook, and it contains thousands of incredible varieties, many of which are available nowhere else.

Seed swaps are becoming very common. They are often hosted by local garden clubs, university ag programs, FFA groups, homesteading groups — the list is almost endless. Home seed savers gather their carefully saved seeds and head to the swap, in keen anticipation of the horticultural treasures they hope to encounter. The excitement is palpable as gardeners talk shop. How bad was this year’s weather? How much isolation do you need to protect peas? Why did my squash seeds mold? Other local and regional gardeners are your best resource, and you come away from a swap with so much more than new varieties of seed!

Online gardening forums have recently begun to enjoy huge popularity. There are dozens of them — some general, others specific to a single crop, like tomatoes, a particular region, and so on. But one thing they virtually all have in common is they all have a board for seed trading. Trading is usually done on the honor system, but gardeners tend to be good people and the vast majority of online trades go off without a hitch. Here are a few to get you started (but there are plenty of others):,,, and

More recently, seed libraries have emerged. A centralized seed bank is developed, and patrons borrow seeds instead of books. When the season ends, they are expected to return a new generation of the seeds they borrowed, preferably in larger quantities than they received. This offsets the occasional failure to make a return, allowing the seed bank to increase. Here are a few:,, and

Every region of the country has a history of growing and saving seed of unique, locally-adapted varieties. In fact, until the advent of the mail-order seed industry in the late 19th century, almost everyone grew and saved their own seed, trading it locally. Though much has been lost, there are lots of types still out there, waiting to be re-discovered and shared with gardeners the world over.

Such local heirlooms are most likely to be still grown and nurtured in rural areas, especially those where per capita incomes are low, often being cultivated and renewed by folks who’ve never heard of “heirloom seeds.” Growers like these maintain their treasured lines because they are often better than one-size-fits-all, store-bought varieties. You are apt to find them at farmer’s markets and roadside stands. Or perhaps an elder in your own family has been carefully maintaining a family-held type for time out of mind.

Savvy home seed-savers keep a watchful eye because there’s no telling where or when something unusual will turn up. Don’t be afraid to ask questions — original variety names may be lost in the mists of time, but often these seed-keepers will know that a family member brought the seeds with them when they emigrated from somewhere else or at least will have some idea how long the variety has been in the family or the area.

Be sure to document as much information as you can, because people move or pass on, and a single chance encounter may be the only opportunity to learn the history of your “new” heirloom. Take notes, because memory sometimes plays tricks.

And if you are lucky enough to chance upon a local heirloom type, cherish it, nurture it and share it.

Here are some helpful definitions and tables that could help you increase your seed knowledge.

Heirloom, Hybrid, GMO

Heirlooms are open-pollinated varieties that have been around 50 years or more—sometimes, a lot more.

Hybrids are usually first- or second-generation crosses of inbred parent lines. For example, an F1 hybrid is not open-pollinated. That means that if you save seed from F1 hybrid parents, the plants grown from the saved seed will not breed true. Often they’ll be nothing at all like the parents, and usually will be markedly inferior.

Genetically engineered varieties (GE or GMOs) could be open-pollinated or hybrid but all have had their genes tinkered with, with genes added artificially, often from some highly unrelated life form, including animals or even people! In nature, such genes virtually never mix, so GMO varieties are entirely artificial, new forms of life.

Crop Isolation for Beginners

Amaranth — Wind-pollinated, isolate by 1 mile (but few gardeners grow it); may cross with wild amaranth (pigweed).

Beans — Self-pollinated, isolate common beans by 50 feet; limas, favas, and runner beans need ½ mile.

Cucumbers — Insect-pollinated, isolate by one-half mile, fruits should be fully ripe; they will be large, yellow or russeted, and usually very soft. Will not cross with melons or watermelons.

Eggplant — Self-pollinated, isolate by 50 feet, red varieties need 500 feet; allow final color change (full ripeness).

Lettuce — Self-pollinated, isolate by 12 feet, don’t save seed from early bolters; may cross freely with wild lettuce, pluck dandelion-like seed before it scatters.

Melons — Insect-pollinated, isolate by a one-half mile; seeds are ready when fruit is at the prime eating stage, will not cross with cukes or watermelons.

Peppers — Self-pollinated, isolate by 500 feet; allow final color change (full ripeness).

Squash — Insect-pollinated, isolate by a one-half mile; squash comes in four species, and the species rarely crosses with other species so you can do one each of up to four species in one isolated garden.

Tomato — Self-pollinated, isolate by 50 feet; potato-leaf varieties like Brandywine need 500 feet.

Watermelons — Insect-pollinated, isolate by a one-half mile; seeds are ready when fruit is at the prime eating stage, will not cross with cukes or true melons.

Seed Storage Times

Here are some common seed varieties separated into appropriate average storage times.

1 Year: Lettuce, onion, parsley, and parsnips.

2 Years: leek, okra, pepper, and sweet corn.

3 Years: Asparagus, beans, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, carrot, celeriac, celery, and pea.

4 Years: Beets, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, chard, chicory, eggplant, kale, and pumpkin.

5 Years: Cucumber, endive, and muskmelon.

Read of Seed

Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties by Carol Depp

Seed to Seed by Suzanne Ashworth

Organic Seed Production and Saving by Bryan Connolly

The Heirloom Life Gardener by Jere and Emilee Gettle

Get Ahead of Your Garden: Start Seedlings

With a plan, some simple supplies, and the right care, you can get a head start on your spring garden by growing seedlings indoors.

Heirloom enthusiasts interested in rare varieties will love the benefits of start seeds early.

Every gardener has particular moments that are his or her absolute favorites of a growing season — moments like receiving a much-anticipated seed order in the mail, harvesting the first of the spinach in spring, cutting into a ripe melon, or talking with fellow gardeners about successes and failures.

Me? I love the moment when my tomato seeds turn into strong seedlings, and I can brush my hand across the tops of the plants growing indoors and smell that glorious fresh tomato smell. It feels like a wonderful form of cheating getting to breathe in that lovely smell long before the heat of summer.

Seed-starting is an enjoyable process that affords many benefits to the home gardener. Here are 10 reasons to start your own garden seeds and 10 tips to help you achieve seed-starting success.

Why start your own seeds?

Endless Varieties. OK, maybe not endless. But your variety options will exponentially increase when you decide to start seeds at home. When shopping for starts at a garden center (or, more limiting yet, the garden section of a big-box store), you’ll typically find the same boring varieties over and over again: Big Boy tomatoes, Early Girl tomatoes, California Wonder peppers, maybe some hybrid broccoli. But in home seed-starting, the sky’s the limit. You can try all kinds of unique varieties, and match your seed starting to your gardening goals, such as wanting compact plants, out-of-this-world flavor, high yields, or disease resistance.

More Heirlooms. This goes hand-in-hand with No. 1, but it’s worth noting: Heirloom enthusiasts interested in trying all kinds of cool, rare varieties will love the advantages of having an efficient seed-starting setup at home.

Save Money. Purchased transplants aren’t cheap. One packet of seeds generally costs less than a single start at a garden center. To take that a step further, if you save your own seeds from open-pollinated varieties you start yourself, the next generation of seeds will be free to you. It’s true that to start seeds you’ll need to spend a bit of money upfront on supplies such as seed-starting mix and grow lights. But in the long run, you’ll save big bucks by not having to purchase your transplants.

Achieve Greater Success with Regionally Adapted Seed. Not every variety of every crop will thrive in every region. When you start your own seeds, you can choose varieties that are regionally adapted to your area, leading to healthier plants and better yields.

Give Crops a Head Start. You can start certain crops such as lettuces indoors, set out the seedlings as winter comes to a close, and then harvest heads weeks before you would have been able to if you’d direct-sown seeds in spring. (Bring a row cover into the mix, and you’ll be even further ahead of the game.) In many regions, the only way to grow certain slow-maturing crops is to give them a head start via indoor seed starting.

More Control Over Sustainability. The more self-sufficient you are in the realm of growing food, the more control you have over the sustainability of all activities involved. When it comes to seed starting, you can make a difference in several small but meaningful ways.

Consume fewer resources by reusing and recycling materials for seed pots. Use seed-starting mixes that don’t contain peat, which — even though it’s ubiquitous in the gardening world — is being harvested from bogs at an alarmingly unsustainable rate. Coconut coir made from coconut husks is a better option that retains moisture just as well. Finally, support seed companies using sustainable practices.

Nudges You to Plan Ahead. We all know that moment when life’s busyness gets away from us and we think, “Yikes — I need to start spring planting soon!” We’re thinking of compost, bed prep, seed ordering we should have done weeks ago, and on and on. If you get in the habit of starting seeds at home, you’re forced (in a good way) to think ahead, decide what you want to plant and what you’re going to start indoors, and order the seeds you need.

Goes Hand-in-Hand with Seed-Saving. If you save your own seeds — a worthy, wonderful pursuit for the self-reliant gardener — it makes sense that you would want to grow your own transplants. And, vice versa, if you’ve made the initial investment in a nice seed-starting setup, it’s that much easier and more inviting to dive into the science of seed saving.

Save Space in Your Garden. If you’re really tight on growing space, starting some crops indoors can help you take strategic advantage of every square foot of soil. For instance, let’s say you have a nice big patch of spinach you’re still harvesting from at the same time that you’re thinking of planting a couple of hills of cucumbers. Instead of choosing one or the other, start your cucumber seeds indoors. Keep harvesting from your spinach during the weeks when your cukes are growing into strong little plants indoors, and then, about the time your spinach will be thinking about going to seed anyway, you can hoe under that crop and pop in your cuke seedlings on the same day. (Choose a vining variety of cucumber and give it something to climb up to save even more space.)

Have Way More Fun at Seed Swaps. If you’ve ever been to a seed swap — or even just flipped through a lovely seed catalog — you’ve probably seen all kinds of intriguing, beautiful seeds for crops that don’t direct-sow well. Get the hang of seed starting, and you’ll never be held back again! I’m being a bit silly here, but it is truly nice to be able to swap or try seeds of all types.

10 Seed-Starting Tips

Create a Plan. One of my favorite aspects of growing my own seedlings is the wintertime planning. Just when I’m longing for days outside in the dirt, I can sketch out what I want to plant during the next growing season, read about new varieties I want to try, and create a calendar of when to start my seeds. Tomatoes, peppers (hot, bell and sweet), eggplant, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage, basil, parsley, and onions are all perfect candidates for seed starting. These crops tend to do much better if planted as transplants and don’t direct-sow as easily.

If you have plenty of space in your seed-starting setup and/or if you have limited space in your garden, you can start lettuce, cucumbers, melons and squash, too. You’ll need to decide ahead of time what crops you’re going to start indoors and how many of each plant you want to grow (and have room for). Make a list, order seeds early, and map out a simple planting calendar.

Make Your Own Mix. Seed-starting mix needs to be a light-medium that holds moisture well. There are a lot of seed-starting mixes available at garden centers, but you can save even more money by creating your own at home (plus, mixing your own allows you to ditch peat and use coir instead). If you’d like to make your own mix, try this well-balanced, coir-based recipe:

• 18 quarts vermiculite
• 12 quarts coir
• 12 quarts mature,
• disease-free compost
• 3/4 cup blood meal
• 1/2 cup limestone
• 1-2/3 cups greensand

(Note: Coir comes in dehydrated bricks from garden centers and pet stores; the measurement here refers to the moistened, expanded material.)

Use Top-Quality, Regional Seed. To ensure the strongest, healthiest plants that will grow best in your micro-climate, choose high-quality, local seed. Purchase from local seed companies whose growing methods and business practices you trust. Look for those that do their own variety trials. Also, attend and get seed at local seed swaps, talking to growers about their varieties and seed selection practices.

Don’t Be Picky About Pots. While the grid-like seed-starting trays you’ve probably seen in stores work well, you can use all kinds of small containers to start your seeds: empty yogurt containers with a few holes punched in the bottom, seed-starting cups made out of old newspaper (plant the whole thing and the paper decomposes), and small pots you’ve saved from purchased flowers and plants. Also try making pots from eggshells, egg cartons, toilet paper rolls, or even a seed blocker, a neat contraption that allows you to stamp out a block of soil that acts as a “pot.”

Do start in individual containers (or individual seed blocks) rather than planting multiple seeds in, say, a large, shallow tub; this will ensure that you don’t disturb plants’ root systems when it’s time to transplant them. In addition to individual containers, you’ll need a shallow tray in which to place your containers and hold water. You can use darn near anything for a tray — I’ve borrowed baking dishes from the kitchen for this purpose.

Get Your Timing Right. This tip, of course, harkens back to No. 1: If you sketch out what you want to grow ahead of time, you can create a quick calendar of when you actually need to start each type of seed. In general, start tomato seeds six to eight weeks before your average last frost date, start peppers eight to 10 weeks before this date, and start most brassicas such as broccoli four to six weeks before your last frost. Start a second round of brassicas for your fall garden about 12 to 14 weeks before your first fall frost. Check seed packets for specific varieties and for other crops to see recommended times for planting seeds indoors.

Plant Two, & Use a Pencil. I always plant two seeds per container and then thin the seedlings later. If I’ve made a careful plan and I’m giving the real estate in my seed-starting setup to grow, say, 10 broccoli plants, I want to be sure I actually end up with that many. So planting two seeds is insurance. When you thin seedlings, never pull the seedling completely out of soil mix. Instead, just use scissors and cut the weaker of the two seedlings at the soil surface so you don’t disturb the delicate root system of the seedling you are keeping.

When you plant your seeds, use a pencil to do so. Dump out some seeds onto a flat, dry surface, and then dip the tip of a pencil in water and touch the pencil tip to a seed. The seed will stick to the pencil, and then you can easily poke the seed into your pot of mix. Trust me — it’s like magic, and is so much easier than using your fingers for planting, especially if you’re dealing with tiny seeds.

Water Well. Be sure to keep your seed-starting mix moist as your seeds germinate and as your seedlings grow. Don’t water tiny seedlings with a watering can, as the force of the water coming out of the spout can damage the delicate plants. Instead, water by spraying seedlings well with a spray bottle or, better yet, by adding water to the bottom trays holding individual containers.

Lots of Light. You have three options when it comes to lighting up the lives of your growing plants: natural sunlight, fluorescent light bulbs and specialized “grow lights.” There are pros and cons to each. Sunlight is, of course, cheapest and least energy-intensive — but you need really strong light in a south-facing window to make it feasible. If your seedlings don’t get enough light, they’ll quickly become “leggy” (spindly and weak) as they put all their energy into reaching more light.

If you use fluorescent lights or grow lights, keep the tops of the growing plants no more than an inch away from the lights. I start my trays out propped up on several books, and then slowly take the books away to lower the trays as the plants get taller. Keep your lights on the seedlings for 14 to 18 hours daily; an inexpensive timer hooked up to your lights can help you ensure this range.

Cozy and Warm. To ensure good germination and strong plants, keeping your seeds and seedlings at a consistent, warm temperature. They shouldn’t get too cold, but they also shouldn’t get too warm — about 70 to 80 degrees is a good range. Some gardeners use an electric heat mat underneath each seed-starting tray, but I don’t think mats are worth the extra expense if there’s another easy way to keep the seedlings warm. Try placing your seed-starting setup next to a heat source, like a heater vent or radiator — and if you do start seeds in a sunny window, always place a curtain or blanket between the seedlings and the window during nighttime.

Always Harden Off. At least a week before you transplant your starts, start getting them used to their new home: the great outdoors. It’s essential to put young plants through this hardening-off period. Set plants out for a couple of hours the first day, in a protected location where they won’t experience rain or strong winds. Build up from there, letting your plants stay outside for a longer period of time each day. At first, limit the amount of time the seedlings spend in the direct sun because they can get sunburned. After they adjust to their new environment, they’ll be ready to live in the garden and provide you with delicious, healthy food.


Hawthorn 101

During the month of February, when all marketing seems to center on triumphs of the heart, it’s important to remember that not every heart is celebrating Valentine’s Day; many hearts need physical and emotional nurturing. That’s when we herbalists love to sing the praises of hawthorn, one of the nature’s resilient trees and Western herbalism’s most widely used plants for promoting heart health.* Beloved around the world since the time of the ancient Chinese, Greeks and Native Americans, hawthorn remains a staple in herbal apothecaries as a tonic and natural support for all things related to the heart.

The hardy Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) consists of over 280 species whose dense, thorny, deciduous trees thrive in temperate climates.  A member of the rose family, the plant blooms clusters of pink or white flowers in the late spring, which then give way to red berries, called “haws,” in late summer.

An important species in Traditional European Herbal Medicine. Native to Europe, Asia, and North America, hawthorn often gathers into thick hedgerows, used throughout history for their strength to enclose pastures and meadows. In fact, historians claim that the ancient hedgerows in France’s Normandy region were so robust that they made the D-Day Battles of World War II even more challenging. Some hawthorn plants can live for up to 200 years.

tm_embed_hawthorn101_ssHawthorn lends its innate resilience to the circulatory system in countless ways. As hearty as it is hardy, herbalist Rosemary Gladstar writes that hawthorn’s haws, leaves, and flowers contain beneficial flavonoids and procyanidins “to feed and tone the heart.” Flavonoids help promote everyday wellness and support heart health, while procyanidins, as condensed tannins, add a protective benefit much like red wine grapes. What’s more, herbalists believe that the energetic properties of hawthorn can help lift the spirits from heartbreak and grief.

First praised by the ancient Greek physician Dioscorides in the first century A.D. and in the ancient Chinese herbal, Tang-Ben-Cao, in 659 A.D., hawthorn has since held an affectionate place in herbalists’ hearts. Beyond herbal medicine, hawthorn has also played a role in herbal folklore to ward off evil spirits. To shield newborn babies from harm, the Romans would hang hawthorn sprigs over cradles. Other pagans strung hawthorn flowers into garlands for use in May Day celebrations. Early Christians associated the plant with Jesus’ crown of thorns and hung it over doorways for protection during the Middle Ages.

Whether physical, emotional or spiritual, hawthorn’s herbal powers seek to protect and support matters of the heart.


Crataegus oxyacantha
Crataegus monogyna

Also, Known As:

  • English Hawthorn
  • Haw
  • Hawthorn
  • May
  • May Blossom
  • Maybush
  • May Tree
  • Quick-set
  • Shan-cha
  • Whitethorn

The herb called the hawthorn is one of the best herbal remedies to boost the performance of the heart and the human circulatory system in general. A potent vasodilatory action can be induced in the human body by the flowers, leaves and the berries of the hawthorn. When these parts of the herb are consumed, they open up the arteries to promote circulation and improve the blood supply to all the general tissues in the body. Regular supplementation with this herb can thus help bring some balance blood pressure and it is considered to be an excellent remedy for the treatment of high blood pressure – especially when the condition is connected to hardening in the arteries of the person. Problems such as those connected to poor circulation caused by aging arteries, problems of poor circulation towards the lower body and legs as well as problems like poor memory and confusion induced by a poor blood circulation to the brain can all be remedied by supplementation with the hawthorn herb. The herb also has an effective and remedial effect in angina cases, the hawthorn based remedies can help open the coronary arteries in the heart and by so doing aid in the improvement of blood flow to the heart, and this herb also softens deposits in the arterial system. The vagus nerve which influences the cardiac muscles is also beneficially affected by the hawthorn herbal remedies, the consumption of this herb can thus slow down irregularities in the heart and reduce a rapid or fast heart rate in a patient. It can be said that herbal remedies made from the hawthorn are ideal for most heart conditions affecting people.

hawthorn-fruitHawthorn berries possess a potent and effective astringent effect – this is very effective in the treatment of problems such as diarrhea and dysentery in patients. The digestive system also benefits due to the relaxant action possessed by the hawthorn leaves, flowers and berries – the herbal remedy also boosts the appetite. At the same time, it acts in relieving abdominal distension and in the removal of stagnation of food in the intestinal tract. Hawthorn herbal remedies also have an effective relaxing effect on the functioning of the nervous system, the herb aids in relieving excessive stress and anxiety, it helps in calming mental agitation, it lessens restlessness and reduces nervous palpitations. The herb also induces sleepiness in people affected by insomnia. The herbal remedies made from the hawthorn also have a diuretic action on the body, it aids in relieving fluid retention in the body and helps dissolve deposits of kidney stones and gravel. The herb is helpful to women in menopause, as it aids in removing debility or night sweats in those affected by them. The hawthorn berries can be made into an herbal decoction, which can be used as an astringent gargle for sore throats as well as an herbal douche for women affected by excessive vaginal discharges.


The hawthorn family of herbs is represented by a family of one hundred to two hundred related species of small trees and shrubs, found in the North American continent, with huge populations in the eastern part of the United States of America. This family of related plants has a very confusing and difficult taxonomy. Though no longer used for most, the hawthorn herb was initially divided into many species. At least 1,100 specific names were published, most of which are no longer accepted. At the same time, many different varieties of the plant are recognized, and hybrids of the herb do exist in the wild. The hawthorn family serves as an important source of food for wildlife; these plants also serve as foliage and cover for animals. The many species which bear fruits that can persist over the winter are particularly of great value to different animal communities in the forest. The many varieties of the hawthorn are utilized in environmental plantings in many forestation projects. Hawthorn plants are very hardy and can tolerate conditions in many different sites with a variety of climatic and soil conditions, due to this, the plants have been planted for stabilizing river banks, and have also been used to shelter reverie belts, as well as being used for erosion control of the soil.


Most members of the hawthorn family of plants are characterized by the presence of thorny twigs and branches, while a few species bear no spines whatsoever. Hawthorn plants bear leaves singly on the branches; these are simple leaves that are borne in alternate rows along the axis of the plant – all of them in different degrees of lobing and varying shapes and serration. The hawthorn family is characterized by bearing very conspicuous flowers, these flowers have five creamy coloreds to pinkish blossoms. The hawthorn flowers are an important part of the history and lore of the United States – for example, the Pilgrims’ ship, the Mayflower, is named after hawthorn flower. The hawthorn flowers normally grow in fragrant clusters during the midsummer, thriving in flattish and terminal groups on the branches. Hawthorn also gives out fruit each season, these are small and resemble apples, and they are characteristically tipped with the remnants of the outermost floral leaves. The fruits are really pomes, which is a fleshy reproductive entity of the plant. Hawthorn pomes have five seeds enclosed in the capsules. These pomes also have a thick outer fleshy layer that is markedly different in taste from one shrub or tree to the other – particularly when the pomes are raw. The size of the each pomes or fruiting body is usually less than half an inch in diameter. The color being reddish, though sometimes yellow and rarely bluish, black or purplish. The hawthorn fruits have a high sugar and low protein, as well as low-fat content pulps.

Bulgarian medical doctors were reportedly treating patients with coronary heart problems using a fluid extract of the hawthorn according to British newspaper reports from 1969. These doctors treated patients over a period of six weeks, the dosage for each patient was fifteen drops of the extract dropped beneath the tongue two times every day, at least three-quarters of the group of sixty-two patients were said to fully recover from the treatment given to them. The use of the hawthorn berries in the treatment of problems such as heart palpitations, conditions like angina, as well as a problem like a stroke was also given in the report by the Sunday times. The presence of organic compounds such as bioflavonoids, like the compound rutin and hesperidin as well as vitamin C, is believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects.


There are two major ways in which the hawthorn acts on the human body. The dilation it induces in the blood vessels, particularly the coronary vessels, which leads to a reduction in the peripheral resistance and a consequent lowering of the blood pressure is the considered to be the primary action. This action of the hawthorn is believed to be responsible for beginning about a reduction in the tendency to experience sudden attacks of angina. The secondary action that the hawthorn induces is apparently a direct and favorable effect on the functioning of the heart; this action is very evident particularly in cases of heart damage sustained by a patient. The effect of the hawthorn extract is not immediate and the beneficial actions tend to develop very slowly over a period of time. The hawthorn is also known to be toxic only at abnormally high dosages and is safe in low doses as a heart tonic. Hawthorn can be considered as a relatively harmless heart tonic, which yields beneficial results in many cardiac conditions that can be treated with herbal remedies.


The beneficial effects of the hawthorn principally accrue from a mixture of plant organic pigments called flavonoids, these chemicals are present in high quantities in many different parts of the herb body. The greatest chemical and physiological actions seem to be displayed by the compounds known as oligomeric procyanidins – or the dihydro catechins. A strong sedative action is also displayed by these chemicals which suggest a beneficial action on the central nervous system in general. The various hawthorn’s based herbal preparations said to possess significant therapeutic value has been recently defined by the German commission E. In the year 1994, the German commission published a revised monograph that recognizes an herbal preparation containing fixed combinations of hawthorn flowers, leaves, and fruits, the monogram also recognized herbal preparations made from the leaves and flowers for use in various treatments. These two herbal extracts are both formed from water and alcohol mixtures with the herb to extract ratio at approximately 5-7:1 per volume. These two herbal hawthorn preparations have been calculated to deliver from 4 mg to 20 mg of flavonoids – that is based on the hyperoside content – and from 30 to 160 mg of the oligomeric procyanidins – based on the epicatechin content – in a single daily hawthorn extract dosage amount of 160 to 900 mg. The dosages are pre-determined by the physician after examination of the patient. A usual dosage period of these oral forms are extended for at least six weeks and can be longer on a case by case basis. Though unsupported by any major clinical study, the usage of other hawthorn preparations, including a well-known alcoholic extract made using only the leaves or the flowers may also prove effective and useful in many cases. As the effectiveness or safety of some preparations made from hawthorn leaf, berry, or flowers alone in the form of mono-preparations have not been documented – such therapeutic claims must be ignored till further study.


These findings may be defeated or substantiated by further scientific studies. As the hawthorn remedies are potentially very valuable in the treatment of many disorders and conditions in the body, the need for immediate scientific studies is apparent and urgently needed. All the side effects and potential dangers of using hawthorn medications must be considered by patients till additional research is carried out, this particularly concerns all prospective users of the hawthorn for serious heart and circulation conditions. Most people who self-prescribe their medications tend to do so following self-diagnosis of the symptoms. There is a great deal of danger involved with this practice particularly when the vital systems of the human body such as the heart and the blood vessels are concerned. Therefore, due to such reasons, the use of hawthorn remedies without the diagnosis of a professional clinician is not suggested – there may be a side effect and other dangers.

Plant Parts Used:

Flowering tops, berries.

Remedy Uses:

Remedies made from the hawthorn plant were traditionally used for all sorts of kidney and bladder stones in Europe. The herbal hawthorn also saw use as a diuretic in the herbal medicine system of medieval Europe. The writings of herbalists such as Culpeper, Gerard, and K’Eogh have all listed the various uses of the herb in herbal literature spanning the 16th to 18th century. An Irish physician successfully used the hawthorn for treating his patients for all kinds of circulatory and cardiac problems near the end of the 19th century – this is the reason that the hawthorn is still used for these particular problems.

Problems such as angina and coronary artery diseases are still treated using the hawthorn remedies today. Hawthorn remedies are also useful for cases of mild congestive heart failure and problems of irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrhythmia. Results usually take some months to show themselves, though the medication is known to work well in a large number of cases. A lot of time is required for the beneficial results to show, similar to the action of many other therapeutic herbs, the hawthorn also works primarily through the body’s own’ physiological processes, changes thus take time and months may go by before results begin to show.

The ability of the hawthorn remedy to reduce high blood pressure is of great therapeutic value, the herbal remedy also raises low blood pressure at the same time. The ability of the hawthorn to restore blood pressure to normal ranges is also highly praised by many herbalists.

Hawthorn is also often used combined with the ginkgo to enhance memory and boost retentive power. The actions of the herb primarily lie in its ability to improve the circulation of blood inside the head, this results in an increase in the amount of oxygen flowing to the brain and this also results in improved memory.

Other medical uses
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Intermittent claudication
  • Swollen Ankles
  • Thrombophlebitis

The Habitat of Hawthorn:

In the northern hemisphere, the temperate areas covering pastures and hedges form ideal habitats for hawthorn trees. Cultivation of the hawthorn trees is usually undertaken using cuttings, while the hawthorn seeds take upwards of eighteen months to germinate in plantations. In plantations, harvesting of the flowering tops is carried out during the late spring, while the hawthorn berries are usually gathered in the late summer to the early autumn each year.


There has been a fair amount of scientific research conducted on the hawthorn herb. The bioflavonoid content of the herb is considered to be the main source of the beneficial effects. Organic compounds like the flavonoids are responsible for bringing out the relaxation and dilation in the arteries – the coronary arteries in particular. The activity of these bioflavonoids is what increases the actual flow of blood to the muscles of the heart, leading to the reduction of the physical symptoms of angina in a person. A potent and efficient antioxidant action is also displayed by the bioflavonoids, the presence of these substances results in the prevention or reduction and the degeneration of the blood vessels in the body.

The effectiveness of hawthorn in the treatment of chronic heart failure has been confirmed in a number of clinical trials, the most notable one was a 1994 trail in Germany, where the ability of hawthorn to improve heartbeat rate and lower the blood pressure was clearly documented in patients.


Hawthorn contains flavonoid glycosides, procyanidins, saponins, tannins, minerals.

Recommended Dosage:

Most nutritionally oriented doctors prescribe the extracts of the leaves and flowers to their patients. The usual dose used is hawthorn extract that has been standardized to have total bioflavonoid content of about 2.2 % or with an oligomeric procyanidins content of about 18.75% per dose. The dosage used by the majority of patients is about 80 to 300 mg of the herbal hawthorn extract in the form of capsules or in tablet form, with dosage 2 – 3 times daily. The herbal extract in the tincture form at four to five ml doses is also taken three times a day by some patients. The suggested dosage for the traditional berry preparations is to take at least four to five grams daily during the treatment period. The results take some time to become manifest and the remedy could take one to two months to show maximum effect, and the herbal extracts are only meant for long-term treatment strategies.

Possible Side Effects and Precautions:

There is very littler danger from the long-term use of the hawthorn and it is considered to be extremely safe for patients using it in any long term treatments. Side effects from hawthorn use are also mostly absent and no negative interactions with any other prescription cardiac medications have been identified as yet – though the possibility always exists. Hawthorn herbal remedies are considered safe for use with pregnant women and in women who are lactating, as far as it is known the use of hawthorn by such patients has no known contraindications. The safety of hawthorn remedies is thus guaranteed till further studies are conducted.

How Hawthorn Works in the Body

The main action of the hawthorn is on the functioning of the cardiovascular system, the organic compounds in the herb affect the regulation of the heartbeat, they affect the relaxation of the arteries, and they also aid in bringing about normalization in the blood pressure – these compounds are capable of lowering and raising blood pressure in the body. The herbal hawthorn remedies can be used to correct the symptoms of angina and in cases of coronary artery disease; they can help boost the flow of blood to the muscles in the heart of the person. The beneficial and medicinal effects of the hawthorn remedies are believed to originate from the presence of a combination of amines and the flavonoids in the herb. At any rate, the beneficial effects of the hawthorn remedies do not occur suddenly but take place over a period of time, and when taken over a period of months, the remedy can reduce symptoms, while also acting as a tonic to the heart at the same time. In the Chinese system of medication, the herb is often suggested for the treatment of problems associated with the digestive system. It is believed to help ease digestion of meat and greasy foods, and the hawthorn is also given in cases of stomach pain, abdominal distension, and also in cases of diarrhea.


Flowering tops:
INFUSION – The hawthorn herb is often prepared into an herbal infusion, this is used to bring about an improvement in the poor or impaired circulation. It is also used as an herbal tonic for various problems of the heart. The herbal infusion made from the hawthorn can be used combined with other herbs such as the yarrow or the ju hua for the treatment of hypertension in different patients.

TINCTURE – The herbal tincture made from the hawthorn is often prescribed as a combination herbal remedy with other cardiac herbs and used in the treatment of problems such as angina, problems such as hypertension, and for all related circulatory disorders in the body.

DECOCTION – The hawthorn is also prepared into an herbal decoction using 30 g of the berries to 0.5l water. This is decocted for fifteen minutes and used in various treatments. This decoction can be taken for the treatment of diarrhea, or when mixed with the ju hua and the gou qi zi for treating hypertension in patients.

JUICE – Hawthorn herbal juice is also used, this juice of the fresh berries is drunk as a cardiac tonic by many patients. The juice of the hawthorn berries is also used for treating diarrhea as well as poor digestion, and as a general digestive tonic by all patients.

Heart-friendly tincture

  • 1 cup (60 g) hawthorn flowers
  • 2 cups (500 ml) gin, brandy or, ideally, kirsch

Crush the flowers in a mortar. Pour in the alcohol and macerate for 1 month away from light. Strain.

Take 1 tsp. (5 m) in a little water every morning and evening before meals for 20 consecutive days to treat arrhythmia, hypertension and palpitations. To maintain the blood vessels in general, follow this same treatment at the start of each season.